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Epilepsy and Women health. Olgica Laban-Grant , MD Northeast Regional Epilepsy Group NEREG 2010. Epilepsy in Women. Role of hormones in epilepsy Contraception Epilepsy and sexuality Pregnancy and epilepsy Postpartum period and epilepsy Bone health and epilepsy Epilepsy in adolescence

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Epilepsy and Women health

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    1. Epilepsy and Women health OlgicaLaban-Grant, MD Northeast Regional Epilepsy Group NEREG 2010

    2. Epilepsy in Women • Role of hormones in epilepsy • Contraception • Epilepsy and sexuality • Pregnancy and epilepsy • Postpartum period and epilepsy • Bone health and epilepsy • Epilepsy in adolescence • Epilepsy in menopause

    3. Epilepsy in WomenHormones and Seizures Female hormones change the excitability of the brain and alter the threshold for seizures Estrogen –decreases threshold Porgesteron- increases threshold

    4. Hormon sensitive seizuresCatamenial epilepsy In 1/3 of female patients there is substantial relationship between seizures and menstrual cycle.

    5. Catamenial Epilepsy Seizures that tend to cluster in relationship to menstrual periods • High levels of estrogen • Low levels of progesterone • Fluid and electrolyte imbalance • Psychological Stress • Decrease in levels of AEDs

    6. Catamenial epilepsy Pattern 1 – just before menstruation (steep decline in progesterone) Pattern 2 – just before ovulation ~day 14 (steep elevation in estrogen)

    7. Catamenial epilepsy • Pattern 3- in second half of menstrual cycle • Anovulatory cycles (ovulation does not occur) are more frequent in women with epilepsy • There is no elevation of progesterone

    8. Epilepsy in Women Catamenial Epilepsy

    9. Catamenial epilepsy What should you do: Keep diary of your seizures and menstrual periods Discuss with your neurologist possibility of catamenial epilepsy

    10. Catamenial epilepsy Pattern 3- in second half of menstrual cycle Anovulatory cycles (ovulation does not occur) are more frequent in women with epilepsy There is no elevation of progesterone

    11. Management of Catamenial Seizures • Your doctor may treat you with • Supplementation with reproductive hormones-natural progesterone • Increase in doses of antiseizure medications during particular time of menstrual cycle

    12. Management of catamenial epilepsy • Cyclic • Natural progesterone seems to work better • Suppressive • Depo-provera

    13. Birth control and epilepsy Some of the antiseizure medication decrease efficacy of birth control pills and other hormonal birth control This may result in birth control failure and unplanned pregnancy

    14. Birth control pills and epilepsy • Antiseizure medications that interfere with birth control are: • Carbamazepine (Tegretol) • Phenobarbital • Phenytoin (Dilantin) • Primidone • Rufinamide (Banzel) • Topiramate (Topamax) *higher doses • Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) *higher doses

    15. Contraception • AED’s that have no influence on levels of steroids • Gabapentin (Neurontin) • Lamotrigine (Lamictal) • Levetiracetam (Keppra) • Tiagabine (Gabatril) • Zonisamide (Zonegran) • Pregabalin (Lyrica)

    16. Lamictal Does not lower efficacy of oral birth control pills, but oral birth control pill can decrease levels of Lamictal

    17. Contraception • Solutions: • Using antiseizure medications that do not interact with birth control pills • Using alternative birth control methods • Using birth control pills with higher dose of estrogen

    18. Contraception • OCP with higher doses of estrogen (50 micrograms) • Depo-Provera - more frequent (6-8 weeks) • If breakthrough bleeding • Increase dose of estrogen • add barrier method • Condoms • Cervical diaphragm or cervical cap • Spermacides

    19. Fertility and Epilepsy Women with epilepsy have fewer children • Possible explanations: • Choice (fear of having child with birth defect) • Sexual dysfunction • Women with epilepsy have more frequent anovulatory cycles (cycles where there is no egg released from ovary) • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    20. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and epilepsy • Definition of syndrome– two out of three of following: • Multiple cysts in ovaries • High male hormone levels • Excessive facial hair and acne • Other features • Obesity • Irregular menstrual periods • More frequent anovulatory cycles

    21. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and epilepsy • Syndrome is twice as common in women with epilepsy • Possible explanations: • Seizure activity in brain alters the production of hormones • Valproic acid (depakote) causes features similar to PCOS

    22. Epilepsy and sexuality People with epilepsy (women and men) may have decrease in interest in sex (libido) or difficulties with sexual functioning.

    23. Sexuality and Epilepsy Possible causes: Anxiety about having a seizure during intercourse Side effect of AED’s Effects of seizures on regions of the brain involved in sexual function Mood disorders

    24. Epilepsy and Pregnancy Over 90% of babies born to women with epilepsy will be healthy. This number may be higher if pregnancies are planned. Although low, birth defect rate is still about twice (4-7%) of rate in general population (1.6-3.2%).

    25. Epilepsy in Women Pregnancy • Discuss before planning pregnancy • May need to change AED drug/dosage • Folic Acid: start before pregnant • Close supervision with neurologist • High-risk pregnancy OB is preferred

    26. Epilepsy in Women Pregnancy Higher risk is due to: Seizures Antiseizure medications Genetic

    27. Epilepsy in Women Pregnancy What can you do about seizures: Women who have better control of seizures prior to pregnancy usually have fewer seizures during pregnancy.

    28. AED’s in pregnancy • More birth defects with: • Polypharmacy (two or more AED’s) • Higher levels of medications

    29. Epilepsy in WomenPrior to pregnancy What can you do about antiseizure medications: Your neurologist/epileptologist will consider: Reducing your medications to single medication (monotherapy) Changing your medication Decreasing dose of your medication Stopping your medication

    30. Epilepsy & PregnancyAED National Pregnancy Registry • Tracks use of AEDs and pregnancy outcomes • All information confidential • Can greatly improve our knowledge

    31. Epilepsy in WomenPregnancy Registry Resources Epilepsy Foundation 800 – EFA – 1000 www.efa.org North American Pregnancy Registry 888 – 233 - 2334

    32. Epilepsy and PregnancyFetal Risks • Most common major malformations: • Neural tube defects • Heart abnormalities • Orofacial clefts

    33. Folic acid • Folic deficiency is associated with increase risk of neural tube defects. • Aed’s that are linked to folic acid malabsorbtion/metabolism are • Phentoin (Dilantin) • Carbamazepine (Tegretol) • Barbiturates • Valproate (Depakote)

    34. Prenatal care Take extra folic acid (1-4mg per day) while trying to conceive Take prenatal vitamins while trying to conceive. Discuss possibility of genetic counseling, especially if there is history of birth defects in family.

    35. Epilepsy in womenPregnancy

    36. Epilepsy in Women Prenatal Testing • Anatomical ultrasound • Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein: increased concentration in mom’s blood and amniotic fluid raise suspicion of neural tube defects

    37. Epilepsy in WomenPostpartum issues • AED levels may rise – close monitoring of levels is necessary • Sleep deprivation and stress may increase frequency of seizures • Child safety/lifestyle adaptation

    38. Epilepsy in WomenBreastfeeding Benefits of breastfeeding are felt to outweigh potential risk of continued exposure of neonate and infant to AEDs (AAN and AAP) • Protein bound drugs have low concentrations in breast milk • Observe breastfeeding infant for irritability, poor sleep patterns, or inadequate weight gain

    39. Epilepsy in adolescence • Most seizure disorders are not altered by onset of puberty • Certain types of epilepsy start at approximate age (JME) or improve (benign rolandic epilepsy, absence epilepsy) • Rapid growth may account for poor seizure control

    40. Epilepsy in adolescence • Menarche (first period) • Discuss hormon sensitive seizures • Interactions of AED’s with contraceptive pills • Start folic acid supplementation • Discuss planning of pregnancy

    41. Epilepsy in adolescence • Discuss • Choice of medications • Substance abuse • Sleep deprivation • Compliance to medications • Driving • Sports safety • Choice of profession

    42. Epilepsy and menopause • Premature menopause is more common in WWE • Effect on seizure frequency is unclear as both estrogen and progesterone levels drop • Catamenial epilepsy seems to improve

    43. Epilepsy and menopause • Doses of AED’s may need to be changed due to changes in metabolism • Polypharmacy due to other medical conditions may affect efficacy of AED’s and seizure • Bone health • Hormone replacement therapy

    44. Epilepsy & Bone health • Fractures are more likely in people with epilepsy due to: • Falls due to seizures and due to side effects of AED’s, and • Altered bone density due to certain AED’s

    45. Epilepsy & Bone health • Altered bone density due to AED’s is associated with: • Phenytoin (dilantin) • Carbamazepine (tegretol) • Barbiturates • Valproate (depakote)

    46. Epilepsy & Bone health Prevention and therapy >6mo AEDs -exercise, balanced diet, stop smoking, moderate alcohol, moderate caffeine -calcium and vitamin D supplements -measure Ca, ALP, 25-hydroxy vit D yearly - Baseline DXA scan

    47. Epilepsy & Bone health Refer for possible treatment to endocrinologist if: • osteopenia/osteoporosis • Abnormal calcium or vit D levels • fracture

    48. Epilepsy & HRT • HRT increases estrogen levels and may increase seizure frequency – concomitant use of natural progesterone may help • AED’s may affect HRT efficacy

    49. THANK YOU! Northeast Regional Epilepsy Group epilepsygroup.com