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Gender in job negotiations Three Things to remember Hannah Riley Bowles International Women’s day 2012 The heller School, Brandeis university. Collaborators: May Al Dabbagh, Linda Babcock, Julia Bear, Lei Lai, Kathleen McGinn, Bobbi Thomason. International Women’s Day.

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Collaborators may al dabbagh linda babcock julia bear lei lai kathleen mcginn bobbi thomason

Gender in job negotiationsThree Things to rememberHannah Riley BowlesInternational Women’s day 2012The heller School, Brandeis university

Collaborators: May Al Dabbagh, Linda Babcock, Julia Bear, Lei Lai, Kathleen McGinn, Bobbi Thomason


International women s day
International Women’s Day

“It is an occasion for looking back on past struggles and accomplishments, and more importantly, for looking ahead to the untapped potential and opportunities that await future generations of women.”

United Nations Womenwatch


International women s day1
International Women’s Day

“It is an occasion for looking back on past struggles and accomplishments, and more importantly, for looking ahead to the untapped potential and opportunities that await future generations of women.”

United Nations Womenwatch


Why negotiation
Why Negotiation?

  • Negotiating the Path to Leadership

    • Negotiation is an essential process for gaining resources and opportunities for the attainment of leadership positions.

  • Potential leaders negotiate to…

    • Seize opportunities to expand their authority

    • Gain recognition and rewards

    • Overcome barriers or challenges


Why negotiation1
Why Negotiation?

  • Negotiating the Path to Leadership

    • Negotiation is an essential process for gaining resources and opportunities for the attainment of leadership positions.

  • Potential leaders negotiate to…

    • Seize opportunities to expand their authority

    • Gain recognition and rewards

    • Overcome barriers or challenges


Why negotiation2
Why Negotiation?

  • Negotiating the Path to Leadership

    • Negotiation is an essential process for gaining resources and opportunities for the attainment of leadership positions.

  • Potential leaders negotiate to…

    • Seize opportunities to expand their authority

    • Gain recognition and rewards

    • Overcome barriers or challenges


Why negotiation3
Why Negotiation?

  • Negotiating the Path to Leadership

    • Negotiation is an essential process for gaining resources and opportunities for the attainment of leadership positions.

  • Potential leaders negotiate to…

    • Seize opportunities to expand their authority

    • Gain recognition and rewards

    • Overcome barriers or challenges


Why negotiation4
Why Negotiation?

  • Negotiating the Path to Leadership

    • Negotiation is an essential process for gaining resources and opportunities for the attainment of leadership positions.

  • Potential leaders negotiate to…

    • Seize opportunities to expand their authority

    • Gain recognition and rewards

    • Overcome barriers or challenges


Why negotiation5
Why Negotiation?

  • Negotiating the Path to Leadership

    • Negotiation is an essential process for gaining resources and opportunities for the attainment of leadership positions.

  • Potential leaders negotiate to…

    • Seize opportunities to expand their authority

    • Gain recognition and rewards

    • Overcome barriers or challenges


3 ideas on gender negotiation
3 Ideas on Gender & Negotiation

#1 Women have less opportunity than men

#2 Ambiguity heightens potential for gender effects

#3 Gender in negotiation is a two-level game


3 ideas on gender negotiation1
3 Ideas on Gender & Negotiation

#1 Women have less opportunity than men

#2 Ambiguity heightens potential for gender effects

#3 Gender in negotiation is a two-level game


3 ideas on gender negotiation2
3 Ideas on Gender & Negotiation

#1 Women have less opportunity than men

#2 Ambiguity heightens potential for gender effects

#3 Gender in negotiation is a two-level game


3 ideas on gender negotiation3
3 Ideas on Gender & Negotiation

#1 Women have less opportunity than men

#2 Ambiguity heightens potential for gender effects

#3 Gender in negotiation is a two-level game


3 ideas on gender negotiation4
3 Ideas on Gender & Negotiation

#1 Women have less opportunity than men

#2 Ambiguity heightens potential for gender effects

#3 Gender in negotiation is a two-level game


Idea 1
Idea #1

  • Women have less opportunity than men to negotiate for career advancement

  • Social Networks

    • Influence access to information and career support

  • Gender Stereotypes

    • Inhibit women more than men from self-advocating in negotiations


Idea 11
Idea #1

  • Women have less opportunity than men to negotiate for career advancement

  • Social Networks

    • Influence access to information and career support

  • Gender Stereotypes

    • Inhibit women more than men from self-advocating in negotiations


Idea 12
Idea #1

  • Women have less opportunity than men to negotiate for career advancement

  • Social Networks

    • Influence access to information and career support

  • Gender Stereotypes

    • Inhibit women more than men from self-advocating in negotiations


Idea 13
Idea #1

  • Women have less opportunity than men to negotiate for career advancement

  • Social Networks

    • Influence access to information and career support

  • Gender Stereotypes

    • Inhibit women more than men from self-advocating in negotiations


Negotiating pay

Idea #1

Unequal Opportunity

Negotiating Pay

***

*

F(1, 111) = 4.80, p = .03

Bowles, Babcock & Lei (2007, Study 1)


Negotiating pay1

Idea #1

Unequal Opportunity

Negotiating Pay

***

*

F(1, 111) = 4.80, p = .03

Bowles, Babcock & Lei (2007, Study 1)


Negotiating pay2

Idea #1

Unequal Opportunity

Negotiating Pay

***

*

Social Cost for Men

F(1, 111) = 4.80, p = .03

Bowles, Babcock & Lei (2007, Study 1)


Negotiating pay3

Idea #1

Unequal Opportunity

Negotiating Pay

***

*

Social Cost for Men

Social Cost for Women

F(1, 111) = 4.80, p = .03

Bowles, Babcock & Lei (2007, Study 1)


Global vs local
Global vs. Local

Studies conducted in Arab Gulf—Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United Arab Emirates (UAE)

  • Rapidly globalizing region

  • Foreign workers >80% private-sector jobs (Arab Labor Organization, 2010)

  • Private-sector Lingua Franca is English

  • Mission of “reform universities” is to prepare local graduates for the global workplace (selected in KSA; nationwide in UAE)


Global vs local1
Global vs. Local

Studies conducted in Arab Gulf—Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United Arab Emirates (UAE)

  • Rapidly globalizing region

  • Foreign workers >80% private-sector jobs (Arab Labor Organization, 2010)

  • Private-sector Lingua Franca is English

  • Mission of “reform universities” is to prepare local graduates for the global workplace (selected in KSA; nationwide in UAE)


Global vs local2
Global vs. Local

Studies conducted in Arab Gulf—Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United Arab Emirates (UAE)

  • Rapidly globalizing region

  • Foreign workers >80% private-sector jobs (Arab Labor Organization, 2010)

  • Private-sector Lingua Franca is English

  • Mission of “reform universities” is to prepare local graduates for the global workplace (selected in KSA; nationwide in UAE)


Global vs local3
Global vs. Local

Studies conducted in Arab Gulf—Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United Arab Emirates (UAE)

  • Rapidly globalizing region

  • Foreign workers >80% private-sector jobs (Arab Labor Organization, 2010)

  • Private-sector Lingua Franca is English

  • Mission of “reform universities” is to prepare local graduates for the global workplace (selected in KSA; nationwide in UAE)


Global vs local4
Global vs. Local

Studies conducted in Arab Gulf—Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United Arab Emirates (UAE)

  • Rapidly globalizing region

  • Foreign workers >80% private-sector jobs (Arab Labor Organization, 2010)

  • Private-sector Lingua Franca is English

  • Mission of “reform universities” is to prepare local graduates for the global workplace (selected in KSA; nationwide in UAE)



Negotiating pay4

Idea #1

Unequal Opportunity

Negotiating Pay

***

*

Social Cost for Men

F(1, 111) = 4.80, p = .03

Bowles, Babcock & Lei (2007, Study 1)


Negotiating pay5

Idea #1

Unequal Opportunity

Negotiating Pay

***

*

Social Cost for Men

Social Cost for Women

F(1, 111) = 4.80, p = .03

Bowles, Babcock & Lei (2007, Study 1)


Global local work cultures1
Global/Local Work Cultures

Social Cost for Men


Global local work cultures2
Global/Local Work Cultures

Social Cost for Women

Social Cost for Men


Global local work cultures3
Global/Local Work Cultures

Social Cost for Women

Social Cost for Men


Global local work cultures4
Global/Local Work Cultures

Social Cost for Women

Social Cost for Men


Global local work cultures5
Global/Local Work Cultures

Social Cost for Women

Social Cost for Men


Global local work cultures6
Global/Local Work Cultures

Social Cost for Women

Social Cost for Men


Global local work cultures7
Global/Local Work Cultures

Social Cost for Women

Social Cost for Men


1 practical implications
#1: Practical Implications

  • Individuals: Use your knowledge about gender stereotypes

    • “Relational Accounts”

      • Employ legitimate explanations that

      • Demonstrateconcern for organizational relationships

  • Organizations: Do men and women feel equally comfortable negotiating?

Bowles & Babcock (2011)


1 practical implications1
#1: Practical Implications

  • Individuals: How can you use your knowledge about stereotypes?

    • “Relational Accounts”

      • Employ legitimate explanations that

      • Demonstrateconcern for organizational relationships

  • Organizations: Do men and women feel equally comfortable negotiating?

Bowles & Babcock (2011)


1 practical implications2
#1: Practical Implications

  • Individuals: How can you use your knowledge about stereotypes?

    • “Relational Accounts”

      • Employ legitimate explanations that

      • Demonstrateconcern for organizational relationships

  • Organizations: Do men and women feel equally comfortable negotiating?

Bowles & Babcock (2011)


1 practical implications3
#1: Practical Implications

  • Individuals: How can you use your knowledge about stereotypes?

    • “Relational Accounts”

      • Employ legitimate explanations that also

      • Demonstrateconcern for organizational relationships

  • Organizations: Do men and women feel equally comfortable negotiating?

Bowles & Babcock (2011)


1 practical implications4
#1: Practical Implications

  • Individuals: How can you use your knowledge about stereotypes?

    • “Relational Accounts”

      • Employ legitimate explanations that also

      • Demonstrateconcern for organizational relationships

  • Organizations: Do men and women feel equally comfortable negotiating?

Bowles & Babcock (2011)


Relational accounts
Relational Accounts

Research Examples

  • Supervisor Excuse Account

    • “My team leader during the training program told me that I should talk with you about my compensation. It wasn’t clear to us whether this salary offer represents the top of the pay range. My team leader told me there’s a range in term of how much managers are paid in their first placement. He thought I should ask to be paid at the top of that range and to explain that I would also like to be eligible for an end of year bonus.”


Relational accounts1
Relational Accounts

Research Examples

  • Supervisor Excuse Account

    • “My team leader during the training program told me that I should talk with you about my compensation. It wasn’t clear to us whether this salary offer represents the top of the pay range. My team leader told me there’s a range in term of how much managers are paid in their first placement. He thought I should ask to be paid at the top of that range and to explain that I would also like to be eligible for an end of year bonus.”


Relational accounts2
Relational Accounts

Research Examples

  • Skill Contribution Account

    • [Negotiation Request] “I don’t know how typical it is for people at my level to negotiate, but I’m hopeful you’ll see my skill at negotiating as something important that I bring to the job.”


Relational accounts3
Relational Accounts

Executive Examples:

  • Sheryl Sandberg strategy:

    • “This is the last time you and I are going to be negotiating across the table from one another, and you want a head of sales who negotiates…”

Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg


Relational accounts4
Relational Accounts

Executive Examples

  • Senior executive finds for second time that a male subordinate is paid more than she is.

    • “I am confident this is just a mistake. The company does not want subordinates paid higher than their managers.”

  • Woman is asked to lead a diversity initiative

    • “How will be measure this initiative’s contribution to the bottom line?”

    • “If you want this position to have the authority you describe, then I think the compensation should be set at [X] level.”


Relational accounts5
Relational Accounts

Executive Examples

  • Senior executive finds for second time that a male subordinate is paid more than she is

    • “I am confident this is just a mistake. The company does not want subordinates paid higher than their managers.”

  • Woman is asked to lead a diversity initiative

    • “How will be measure this initiative’s contribution to the bottom line?”

    • “If you want this position to have the authority you describe, then I think the compensation should be set at [X] level.”


Relational accounts6
Relational Accounts

Executive Examples

  • Senior executive finds for second time that a male subordinate is paid more than she is

    • “I am confident this is just a mistake. The company does not want subordinates paid higher than their managers.”

  • Woman is asked to lead a diversity initiative

    • “How will be measure this initiative’s contribution to the bottom line?”

    • “If you want this position to have the authority you describe, then I think the compensation should be set at [X] level.”


Relational accounts7
Relational Accounts

Executive Examples

  • Senior executive finds for second time that a male subordinate is paid more than she is

    • “I am confident this is just a mistake. The company does not want subordinates paid higher than their managers.”

  • Senior woman is asked to lead a diversity initiative

    • “How will be measure this initiative’s contribution to the bottom line?”

    • “If you want this position to have the authority you describe, then I think the compensation should be set at [X] level.”


Relational accounts8
Relational Accounts

Executive Examples

  • Senior executive finds for second time that a male subordinate is paid more than she is

    • “I am confident this is just a mistake. The company does not want subordinates paid higher than their managers.”

  • Senior woman is asked to lead a diversity initiative

    • “How will we measure this initiative’s contribution to the bottom line?”

    • “If you want this position to have the authority you describe, then I think the compensation should be set at [X] level.”


Relational accounts9
Relational Accounts

Executive Examples

  • Senior executive finds for second time that a male subordinate is paid more than she is

    • “I am confident this is just a mistake. The company does not want subordinates paid higher than their managers.”

  • Senior woman is asked to lead a diversity initiative

    • “How will we measure this initiative’s contribution to the bottom line?”

    • “If you want this position to have the authority you describe, then I think the compensation should be set at [X] level.”


Idea 2
Idea #2

  • Ambiguity heightens the potential for differential negotiation outcomes

  • Structural Ambiguity

  • Degree of clarity about zone of possible agreement and appropriate standards for agreement

  • (Bowles, Babcock, & McGinn, 2005)

  • Norm Ambiguity

  • Degree of clarity about norms for appropriate negotiating behavior

  • (Kray & Gelfand, 2009; Babcock & Bowles, 2009)


Idea 21
Idea #2

  • Ambiguity heightens the potential for differential negotiation outcomes

  • Structural Ambiguity

  • Degree of clarity about zone of possible agreement and appropriate standards for agreement

  • (Bowles, Babcock, & McGinn, 2005)

  • Norm Ambiguity

  • Degree of clarity about norms for appropriate negotiating behavior

  • (Kray & Gelfand, 2009; Babcock & Bowles, 2009)


Idea 22
Idea #2

  • Ambiguity heightens the potential for differential negotiation outcomes

  • Structural Ambiguity

  • Degree of clarity about zone of possible agreement and appropriate standards for agreement

  • (Bowles, Babcock, & McGinn, 2005)

  • Norm Ambiguity

  • Degree of clarity about norms for appropriate negotiating behavior

  • (Kray & Gelfand, 2009; Babcock & Bowles, 2009)


Mba salary outcomes

Idea #2

Ambiguity Matters

MBA Salary Outcomes

  • Controls

    • work experience, job function, prev. salary, job offers, non-compensation preferences, etc.

      • Overall gender gap ≈ $5,000

  • Conditions

    • “Low Ambiguity” (70%): No gender difference

    • “High Ambiguity” (30%): $11,000 gender gap


Mba salary outcomes1

Idea #2

Ambiguity Matters

MBA Salary Outcomes

  • Controls

    • work experience, job function, previous salary, job offers, non-compensation preferences, etc.

      • Overall gender gap ≈ $5,000

  • Conditions

    • “Low Ambiguity” (70%): No gender difference

    • “High Ambiguity” (30%): $11,000 gender gap

(Bowles et al., 2005)


Mba salary outcomes2

Idea #2

Ambiguity Matters

MBA Salary Outcomes

  • Controls

    • work experience, job function, previous salary, job offers, non-compensation preferences, etc.

      • Overall gender gap ≈ $5,000

  • Conditions

    • “Low Ambiguity” (70%): No gender difference

    • “High Ambiguity” (30%): $11,000 gender gap

(Bowles et al., 2005)


Mba salary outcomes3

Idea #2

Ambiguity Matters

MBA Salary Outcomes

  • Controls

    • work experience, job function, previous salary, job offers, non-compensation preferences, etc.

      • Overall gender gap ≈ $5,000

  • Conditions

    • “Low Ambiguity” (70%): No gender difference

    • “High Ambiguity” (30%): $11,000 gender gap

(Bowles et al., 2005)


Mba salary outcomes4

Idea #2

Ambiguity Matters

MBA Salary Outcomes

  • Controls

    • work experience, job function, previous salary, job offers, non-compensation preferences, etc.

      • Overall gender gap ≈ $5,000

  • Conditions

    • “Low Ambiguity” (70%): No gender difference

    • “High Ambiguity” (30%): $11,000 gender gap

(Bowles et al., 2005)


Mba salary outcomes5

Idea #2

Ambiguity Matters

MBA Salary Outcomes

  • Controls

    • work experience, job function, previous salary, job offers, non-compensation preferences, etc.

      • Overall gender gap ≈ $5,000

  • Conditions

    • “Low Ambiguity” (70%): No gender difference

    • “High Ambiguity” (30%): $11,000 gender gap

(Bowles et al., 2005)


Executive compensation

Idea #2

Ambiguity Matters

Executive Compensation

  • Studies suggest gender differences in executive compensation are greater in non-standardized forms of pay

    • Bonuses(Elvira & Graham, 2002)

    • Equity(Lyness & Thompson, 1997)


Idea 2 practical implications
Idea #2: Practical Implications

  • Organizations: How does one learn what is negotiable?

    • More transparency is likely to reduce gender differences in negotiated outcomes

  • Individuals: Women especially need to reach outside of convenience networks for comparison standards.


Idea 2 practical implications1
Idea #2: Practical Implications

  • Organizations: How does one learn what is negotiable?

    • More transparency is likely to reduce gender differences in negotiated outcomes

  • Individuals: Women especially need to reach outside of convenience networks for comparison standards.


Idea 2 practical implications2
Idea #2: Practical Implications

  • Organizations: How does one learn what is negotiable?

    • More transparency is likely to reduce gender differences in negotiated outcomes

  • Individuals: Where can you get the best information?

    • Reach outside of convenience networks


Idea 2 practical implications3
Idea #2: Practical Implications

  • Organizations: How does one learn what is negotiable?

    • More transparency is likely to reduce gender differences in negotiated outcomes

  • Individuals: Where can you get the best information?

    • Reach outside of convenience networks


Idea 3 the two level game
Idea #3: The Two-Level Game

Negotiations with employers are contingent on negotiations at home (Bowles & McGinn, 2008).


Idea 3 the two level game1
Idea #3: The Two-Level Game

Negotiations with employers are contingent on negotiations at home (Bowles & McGinn, 2008).


Idea 3 the two level game2
Idea #3: The Two-Level Game

Negotiations with employers are contingent on negotiations at home (Bowles & McGinn, 2008).


Lilly ledbetter s story
Lilly Ledbetter’s Story

  • 1996

    • Ledbetter received “Top Performance” award from company

  • 1997

    • Ledbetter earned $44,724 in salary.

    • Lowest paid man doing same work earned $51,432.


Lilly ledbetter s story1
Lilly Ledbetter’s Story

$0.87/$1

  • 1996

    • Ledbetter received “Top Performance” award from company

  • 1997

    • Ledbetter earned $44,724 in salary.

    • Lowest paid man doing same work earned $51,432.


Lilly ledbetter s story2
Lilly Ledbetter’s Story

1996 Median Annual Earnings (U.S. full time, year round)

Female = $32,515

Male = $42,261

$0.87/$1

  • 1996

    • Ledbetter received “Top Performance” award from company

  • 1997

    • Ledbetter earned $44,724 in salary.

    • Lowest paid man doing same work earned $51,432.


Lilly ledbetter s story3
Lilly Ledbetter’s Story

1996 Median Annual Earnings (U.S. full time, year round)

Female = $32,515

Male = $42,261

$0.87/$1

$0.77/$1

  • 1996

    • Ledbetter received “Top Performance” award from company

  • 1997

    • Ledbetter earned $44,724 in salary.

    • Lowest paid man doing same work earned $51,432.


Lilly ledbetter s story4
Lilly Ledbetter’s Story

1996 Median Annual Earnings (U.S. full time, year round)

Female = $32,515

Male = $42,261

$0.87/$1

$0.77/$1

  • 1996

    • Ledbetter received “Top Performance” award from company

  • 1997

    • Ledbetter earned $44,724 in salary.

    • Lowest paid man doing same work earned $51,432.


Collaborators may al dabbagh linda babcock julia bear lei lai kathleen mcginn bobbi thomason

The Global GenderGap Report 2011

Ricardo Hausmann, Harvard UniversityLaura D. Tyson, University of California, BerkeleySaadiaZahidi, World Economic Forum

“Ricardo Hausmann, director of the Centre for International Development at Harvard University, said that, among the 134 countries covered in the report, 'we have found that gaps are closing between women and men's health and education . . . And yet only 60 per cent of economic participation gaps have been closed.

Progress will be achieved when countries seek to reap returns on the investment in health and education of girls and women by finding ways to make marriage and motherhood compatible with the economic participation of women.’”

Harvesting full potential of women in labour force

Business Times Singapore

International Women’s Day, March 8, 2012


Idea 3 practical implications
Idea #3: Practical Implications

  • Organizations: Are work-life dilemmas on the table?

  • Individuals: How do I manage work-life conflicts?

    • Negotiate for long-run success

    • Create value to make work and life partners better off

    • Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg:“Don’t leave before you leave”


Leadership opportunity

Idea #3

Two-Level Game

Leadership Opportunity

  • Major corporation selects two candidates for overseas leadership opportunities:

    • Man accepts within 48 hours

    • Woman still has not accepted

      • Is she less interested? Less ambitious?


Leadership opportunity1

Idea #3

Two-Level Game

Leadership Opportunity

  • Major corporation selects two candidates for overseas leadership opportunities:

    • Man accepts within 48 hours

    • Woman still has not accepted

      • Is she less interested? Less ambitious?


Leadership opportunity2

Idea #3

Two-Level Game

Leadership Opportunity

  • Major corporation selects two candidates for overseas leadership opportunities:

    • Man accepts within 48 hours

    • Woman still has not accepted

      • Is she less interested? Less ambitious?


Leadership opportunity3

Idea #3

Two-Level Game

Leadership Opportunity

  • Major corporation selects two candidates for overseas leadership opportunities:

    • Man accepts within 48 hours

    • Woman still has not accepted

      • Is she less interested? Less ambitious?


Idea 3 practical implications1
Idea #3: Practical Implications

  • Organizations: Are work-life dilemmas on the table?

  • Individuals: How do I manage work-life conflicts?

    • Negotiate for long-run success

    • Create value to make work and life partners better off

    • Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg:“Don’t leave before you leave”


Idea 3 practical implications2
Idea #3: Practical Implications

  • Organizations: Are work-life dilemmas on the table?

  • Individuals: How do I manage work-life conflicts?

    • Negotiate for long-run success

    • Create value to make work and life partners better off

    • Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg:“Don’t leave before you leave”


Idea 3 practical implications3
Idea #3: Practical Implications

  • Organizations: Are work-life dilemmas on the table?

  • Individuals: How do I manage work-life conflicts?

    • Negotiate for long-run success

    • Create value to make work and life partners better off

    • Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg:“Don’t leave before you leave”


Idea 3 practical implications4
Idea #3: Practical Implications

  • Organizations: Are work-life dilemmas on the table?

  • Individuals: How do I manage work-life conflicts?

    • Negotiate for long-run success

    • Create value to make work and life partners better off

    • Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg:“Don’t leave before you leave”


3 ideas problems solutions
3 Ideas: Problems & Solutions

PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS FOR WOMEN

  • Women have less opportunity to negotiate than men

  • Ambiguity facilitates gender effects

  • Gender effects in negotiation are a two-level game

  • Reach out and use your knowledge of gender stereotypes to

  • Reduce the ambiguity

  • Create value in the two-level game


3 ideas problems solutions1
3 Ideas: Problems & Solutions

PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS FOR WOMEN

  • Women have less opportunity to negotiate than men

  • Ambiguity facilitates gender effects

  • Gender effects in negotiation are a two-level game

  • Reach out and use your knowledge of gender stereotypes to

  • Reduce the ambiguity

  • Create value in the two-level game


3 ideas problems solutions2
3 Ideas: Problems & Solutions

PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS FOR WOMEN

  • Women have less opportunity to negotiate than men

  • Ambiguity facilitates gender effects

  • Gender effects in negotiation are a two-level game

  • Reach out and use your knowledge of gender stereotypes to

  • Reduce the ambiguity

  • Create value in the two-level game


3 ideas problems solutions3
3 Ideas: Problems & Solutions

PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS FOR WOMEN

  • Women have less opportunity to negotiate than men

  • Ambiguity facilitates gender effects

  • Gender effects in negotiation are a two-level game

  • Reach out and use your knowledge of gender stereotypes

  • Reduce the ambiguity

  • Create value in the two-level game


3 ideas problems solutions4
3 Ideas: Problems & Solutions

PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS FOR WOMEN

  • Women have less opportunity to negotiate than men

  • Ambiguity facilitates gender effects

  • Gender effects in negotiation are a two-level game

  • Reach out and use your knowledge of gender stereotypes

  • Reduce the ambiguity

  • Create value in the two-level game


3 ideas problems solutions5
3 Ideas: Problems & Solutions

PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS FOR WOMEN

  • Women have less opportunity to negotiate than men

  • Ambiguity facilitates gender effects

  • Gender effects in negotiation are a two-level game

  • Reach out and use your knowledge of gender stereotypes

  • Reduce the ambiguity

  • Create value in the two-level game


3 ideas problems solutions6
3 Ideas: Problems & Solutions

PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS FOR WOMEN

  • Women have less opportunity to negotiate than men

  • Ambiguity facilitates gender effects

  • Gender effects in negotiation are a two-level game

  • Reach out and use your knowledge of gender stereotypes

  • Reduce the ambiguity

  • Create value in the two-level game


Thank you
Thank you!

Feedback and ideas are warmly welcome.

hannah_bowles@harvard.edu