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  1. Supporting Inclusive Education Logographic reading Linda Siegel University of British Columbia, Vancouver

  2. Supporting Inclusive Education Linda Siegel University of British Columbia Vancouver, CANADA linda.siegel@ubc.ca

  3. A European Framework for definitions UN Declaration of Human Rights (1948) Resolution 217 Article 26 “Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory.” My comment – Education should be appropriate. 3

  4. Salamanca Statement – June 1994 Signatories to the Salamanca Statement agreed that: • every child has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs • education systems should be designed and educational programmes implemented to take into account the wide diversity of these characteristics and needs 4

  5. Salamanca Statement – June 1994 The Salamanca guidelines included ... a need to take full account of individual differences (Statement 21) ... adapting to the needs of the child (Statement 28) ... providing additional assistance and support to children requiring it (Statement 29) 5

  6. Salamanca Statement – June 1994 The Salamanca guidelines included ... identifying difficulties and assist pupils to overcome them (Statement 31) ... appropriate teacher training (Statement 42) 6

  7. Framework for Success Policies Teamwork Resources Training Awareness 7

  8. Successful inclusion It is important to recognize these principal areas: Policies – These are a legal aspects in a particular jurisdiction. Resources – These should be evidence based Training – Cannot be performed without a good knowledge base and resources. Teamwork- Professionals and parents Awareness – Knowledge about disabilities is critical

  9. Policies • Education policies should recognise that every individual has unique characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs, and education systems should be designed to provide informed evaluations and derive appropriate educational programmes to accommodate the wide diversity of these characteristics and needs. • Work and life related policies, e.g. disability discrimination legislation, should ensure that no individual is excluded or penalised because they learn in a different way. • All policies should reflect that these rights are irrespective of the individual’s first language.

  10. Resources • Screening and assessment of the individual with SPLD should be freely available for all, using a well-researched, widely accepted test (or range of tests) based on current theories. These tests should be relevant to needs and support, and provide the basis for the formation of an individual education plan, including additional resource support (e.g. ICT requirements), and/or guidance for personal development. • Teaching and learning resources (e.g. paper and computer based teaching materials) should be available to teach the individual literacy and life skills, and help strengthen other area of weakness that may be identified.

  11. Resources (2) • Support material and devices (e.g. text readers) should be widely accessible and acceptable for education and employment purposes. • Guidance and awareness information should be widely available (e.g. web based) to the general public, and to all professionals who may be working with or supporting the individual with SEN.

  12. Training • Every educational establishment should have staff trained in the identification of individuals with specific learning difficulties. • All staff in educational establishments should be trained in the awareness and understanding of SEN, and how to provide accommodations within a normal teaching/learning environment. • All those concerned with education (e.g. learning support assistant and policy makers) should know their responsibilities towards Individuals with SEN. • All those working with or caring for the individuals with SEN, (e.g. parents, educational and occupational psychologists, speech and language therapists, disability officers, human resources personnel, community workers) should be trained to identify specific learning difficulties using the latest tools, and to provide recommendations with respect to the latest developments, including ICT. • Every individual with SEN should be provided training to understand, discover, explore and capitalise upon their strengths and weakness to ensure they gain the maximum benefit from support and recommendations resulting from their needs assessment.

  13. Training Educational establishments and employers • Each educational establishment should have individuals trained in the recognition of the individual with SEN and their needs. • All employers should be aware of the special needs and abilities of the Individual with SEN, and should ensure their abilities, strengths and weaknesses are fully utilised for the benefit of the individual, the employer and society. • All staff should be trained in the awareness and understanding of SEN, and how to accommodate the individual within the normal learning and working environment. • All schools and employers should have policy guidelines to ensure an inclusive approach is adopted for individuals with SEN. • Any support provided should be seen as a fundamental human right which ensure these individuals are empowered within society, and are not perceived as an advantage to the individual by the general public.

  14. Inclusive Education Individual Class School Parents Individual Learning Good for spld, good for all Whole school approach Parental support Support including assistive technology Classroom Management Staff Support Supporting the parent 14

  15. Traditional Model • Deficit • Functional limitations stressed • Classification very important • Standardized assessment • Separate remedial instruction for each category

  16. What is inclusive education? • Students are with their age and grade level peers • Few if any special classes and no special schools • All children in the same classroom, whatever the disability • There can be resource withdrawal

  17. What is inclusive education? • Continuum of support service • Special education is integrated with regular education • Need to review student progress • Reading, spelling, writing (composition), mathematical problem solving, arithmetic • Not necessarily examinations. EPs play an important role in assessment – either guiding teachers or doing individual assessments

  18. Why inclusive education? • Human rights concerns – value all within the community • Increase social acceptance • Integrate individual into educational system • Prepare SPED student for living in a broader social context • Help prevent bullying and aggression • Help non SPED children

  19. Opposition to inclusion • It costs too much • Other children will suffer • Individual student will not be able to cope • It is too difficult • People are not willing to accept it • Students will not get an appropriate education- their needs will not be met

  20. Teamwork - Partners in Inclusion

  21. What makes inclusion work? • Teacher preparation • Smaller class size • Not too many special ed students in one class • Classroom climate • Discussion of the individual differences with the students

  22. What makes inclusion work? • Educators assume responsibility • Teachers work closely with all children • Children are prepared for difference • Characteristics of SPED children • ∞responsiveness • ∞strengths • Parent support

  23. What are the characteristics of lessons that support inclusion? • Recognize and build on the diversity of student experience • Reflect difference in student knowledge and abilities • Accommodate different rates at which students learn • Allow for differences in learning styles

  24. What are the characteristics of lessons that support inclusion? • Learning aims are clear • Recognize student strengths • Avoid mechanical copying • Work done by individuals/pairs/groups/whole class • Variety of activities discussion, oral presentation, audio-visual, writing, library • Variety of ways to record work

  25. What are the characteristics of good teacher and EP preparation for inclusion? • Fostering an understanding of how children develop reading, spelling, arithmetic, problem-solving and social skills • Developing an understanding of social and emotional development • Developing positive attitudes toward student diversity

  26. What are the characteristics of good teacher preparation and EP for inclusion? • Knowledge of the categories of special ed students • Practicum experience with special ed students • Understanding of working with paraprofessionals • Understanding the parents’ feelings and concerns

  27. What is good leadership in regard to inclusion? • Knowledge of practice • Ability to communicate vision • Enthusiastic about inclusion • Maintain morale • Understand power structure • Provide support to teachers • Aware of parent concerns

  28. Role of the Principals (Headmasters) • Select staff who agree with inclusion • Recognize the need for program and staff development • Total responsibility for all students • Understand the benefits of inclusion for all students • Identify services • Understand the role of technology • Develop the school climate

  29. Family of Schools approach • Professionals meet together from a small number of schools and discuss problems and solutions. • Professionals learn to understand the roles of the individuals in the team and how they can work together

  30. Sharing Practices • Best practices conference • Posters, booths and tables • Time for people to move around and visit the exhibits • Organized by SPED category

  31. Group Activity • Describe a successful experience with inclusion.

  32. Universal Design for Learning • Definition – An approach to education that addresses the barriers to students’ learning • Goal – making expert learners of all students

  33. Universal Design for Learning • Goals – appropriate instruction for all students • Materials- multiple representations of content • Methods- flexible and diverse • Assessment – flexible, provides information to teacher and the learner

  34. Identify Strengths and Weaknesses • Outline your own strengths and weaknesses in the learning areas. • Consider what are the ways in which you learn the best. • Consider how the educational system can adapt to your learning style.

  35. Universal Design for Learning • Representation -the what of learning how information is presented • Expression -the how of learning how the learner expresses knowledge • Engagement -the why of learning how the learner is motivated, engaged intrinsic vs. external

  36. Learning Styles • Students learn in different ways. • Some students grasp information easily when it is in print form. • Others prefer information presented in an auditory form. • Still others prefer a non-print visual format. • No one means of representation will suit all students.

  37. Case Study - Paul • Dyslexic – slow reader • P6 • Difficulty with reading, spelling and writing • Problems with verbal memory • Above average mathematical skills • Shy, reluctant to speak • Good 3-dimensional visual-spatial skills • Artistic

  38. Representation- Options for Perception • Customize display of information • Graphics, charts – Paul grasps information more quickly in this form • Features of the text • Auditory Information • Tape record lectures – Paul cannot take notes quickly • Students share notes • Visual information • Films, pictures, PowerPoint – alternate ways of presenting information

  39. Features of the Text • Make text easier to read • Size of the text or images • Amplitude and speed of the speech, video or sounds • Contrast between background and text • Colour used for information or emphasis • Layout of the visual material • Headings, boxes, white spaces, font

  40. Universal Design for Learning • Representation -the what of learning how information is presented • Expression -the how of learning how the learner expresses knowledge • Engagement -the why of learning how the learner is motivated, engaged

  41. Universal Design for Learning • Representation -the what of learning how information is presented • Expression -the how of learning how the learner expresses knowledge • Engagement -the why of learning how the learner is motivated, engaged

  42. Alternatives for auditory information • Speech to text • speech recognition – writing difficulties, shy • Ideal for Paul but had to learn how to use it • Tape recorder – also good for Paul • Visual symbols for important points • Bullets, font size • Visual equivalents for sound effects or alerts • Sound to turn the page

  43. Alternatives for Visual Information • Graphics • Animation • Video –nature, biology • Physical objects • Spatial models – maps, 3 dimensional very good for Paul – history, biology

  44. Examples of Alternate Text • Text to speech – screen reader good for Paul • Talking books and textbooks – good for Paul • Aide or partner that can help with reading – paired reading

  45. Case Study - Paul • Dyslexic – slow reader • P6 • Difficulty with reading, spelling and writing • Problems with memory • Above average mathematical skills • Shy, reluctant to speak • Good 3 dimensional visual-spatial skills • Artistic

  46. Biology-Endangered Species • Students work in groups to develop a board game • Students remember facts more accurately • Must do research – must cooperate • Students with output problem – good verbal skills but poor writing can speak • Students with artistic skills can draw the board • Encourages imagination and critical thinking • Autistic spectrum disorder - details

  47. Dyslexic- Paul • Prefers colour coding – helps his visual memory • Prefers charts • Wants to be allowed to tape record lectures

  48. Group Activity • How can we help Paul learn biology in the endangered species game?

  49. Case Study - Susan • S1 • Difficulty with mathematics, impulsive errors, does not know multiplication tables • Poor handwriting and spelling • Trouble learning English • Attention deficit, appears unmotivated • Good reader, including reading comprehension • Good at rule learning • Likes acting and drama • Likes to play the drums and sing

  50. Group Activity • How can we help Susan in the Endangered Species game?