Components of Food. Chemistry Project 2005-2006. Carbohydrates. Chemistry and Food. What is Carbohydrates ?. Compounds composed of carbon and water General formula C x H 2y O y H:O = 2 : 1 Divided into 3 types ---Monosaccharides ---Disaccharides ---Polysaccharides. Monosaccharides.
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Chemistry Project 2005-2006
Chemistry and Food
eg. hemoglobin :64 500
viral proteins :40 000 000
e.g. E.coli :800 types
human:10 000 types
Therefore it determines the characteristics of a species
no of amino group = no of carboxyl group
no of amino group > no of carboxyl group
no of amino group < no of carboxyl group
a) disulphide bond
b) hydrogen bond
c) hydrophobic interaction
d) ionic bond (broken by alternation in pH)
- high electropositive eg.Ag+ Hg +
- high electronegative eg. CN-
- organic solvent
- Mechanical force
1.cytoskeleton : cytoplasm consists of a network of fibrous
2. Membrane protein
3. Raw material for growth
4. Formation of enzymes, hormones, antibodies
5. Fibrous proteins for support and protection
6. Osmotic balance and buffering
7. Energy source
Protease in gastric juice and pancreatic juice
Stomach & duodenum
Protease in intestinal juice
Capillaries in villi of small intestine
Kidney for excretion
Symptoms of Kwashiorkor:
a) Inflammation of skin
c) Swelling of abdomen
A fatty acid
-> (1) Hydrolytic (2) Oxidative
-> Both of which release foul smelling aldehydes and carboxylic acids.
A taste of fatty according to “yahoo dictionary”.
butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)
carotene (Pro-Vitamin A)
Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water.
Fats can be hydrolysed into carboxylic acids and glycerol in an alkaline medium (NaOH).
It is a reversible reaction.
An unsaturated fat is a fat in which there is one or more double bond between carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain.
Such fat molecules are monounsaturated if each contains one double bond, and polyunsaturated if each contain more than one.
Unsaturated fat cannot pack together closely, because of their bent structure. As a result, unsaturated oils exist as a liquid at room temperature.
Use your brain to think…
Soy bean oil
Iodine value is used to measure the degree of unsaturation in fats and oils.
It is determined by reacting fats or oils with excess iodine which adds on across the double bonds in the carboxylic acid side chains .
The degree of unsaturation is defined as the number of grams of iodine needed to react with 100 grams of fats/oils.
The greater the value is , the greater the degree of unsaturation in the fat or oil.
Triglycerides are common energy reserve in the adipose tissue of animals. They are an excellent storage form of energy because of the followings:
Oils on BunBun's face has protective function.