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The Haitian Revolution. 1791-1803. Aim: Was the Haitian Revolution a success or a failure?. Do Now: Handout As we go over the handout please fill in the answers to the questions listed. .

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aim was the haitian revolution a success or a failure
Aim: Was the Haitian Revolution a success or a failure?
  • Do Now: Handout
  • As we go over the handout please fill in the answers to the questions listed.

1697 - Treaty formally ceded the western third of Hispaniola from Spain to France, which renamed it Saint-Domingue

pearl of the antilles
Pearl of the Antilles
  • The colony of Saint-Domingue was the richest colony in the West Indies and probably the richest colony in the history of the world.
  • Driven by slave labor and enabled by fertile soil and ideal climate, Saint-Domingue produced sugar, coffee, cocoa, indigo, tobacco, cotton, sisal as well as some fruits and vegetables for the motherland, France.
how did the social structure of haitian society contribute to the haitian revolution
How did the social structure of Haitian Society contribute to the Haitian Revolution?
  • The whites
  • The free people of color
  • The black slaves
  • The maroons
whites 20 000 mostly french

Wealthy plantation owners

Discontented with France

No representation

United in favor of slavery

Petit Blancs

Artisans, shop keepers, merchants, teachers

Less independence-minded and more loyal to France

Also approved of slavery

Whites = 20,000 – Mostly French
the free people of color 30 000
½ Mulattoes

Children of white Frenchmen and black slave women

Tense relationship w/slaves

½ freed slaves

The Free People of Color 30,000
the free people of color
Very wealthy

Owned plantations and slaves

Denied their African roots

Dressed exceptionally well

Catholic rather than Voodoo

Well educated

French rather than Creole

The Free People of Color
the black slaves 500 000 slaves outnumbered free people by 10 1
100,000 – Domestics

More Loyal to Masters

400,000 - Field Hand

Treated very cruelly

The Black Slaves = 500,000 Slaves outnumbered free people by 10-1
the maroons
The Maroons
  • Large group of run-away slaves who retreated deep into the mountains of Saint-Domingue.
from rebellion to revolution
From Rebellion to Revolution
  • Growing independence movement by planters
  • French enforced “Exclusif”
    • Molasses  Dried Fish
slave rebellions
Slave Rebellions
  • Why did slave owners treat their slaves especially harsh?
  • Mackandal Rebellion of 1759
    • Plot to poison slave owners
  • Remember the ratio!
other influences which contributed to the revolution
Other influences which contributed to the Revolution
  • 1791 – Slaves revolt
  • Why would they revolt after more than 200 years of slavery?
the declaration of the rights of man august 27 1789
The Declaration of the Rights of Man (August 27, 1789)
  • How would the Declaration of the Rights of Man influence a revolt in Haiti?

“Article 1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may only be founded upon the general good.”

“ The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptibly rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression”

toussaint l ouverture
Toussaint L’Ouverture
  • Led slave revolts
  • Considered brilliant
  • Self – educated
  • Former slave
  • Fought against French, British and Spanish troops
  • Arduous battle
  • Many lives lost
haitian independence
Haitian Independence!
  • 1802 – Napoleon sent a large army to reconquer Haiti
  • Something other than Toussaint’s forces attacked the French armies…
    • Yellow Fever destroyed much of Napoleon’s troops
  • 1802 – French agreed to a truce

1804 – Haitians declare independence

  • 1804 - Toussaint captured and dies in prison

Would the Hatian Revolution have succeeded without Toussaint L’Ouverture?Activity:Examine the List of Toussaint’s greatest achievements as interpreted by Historian Milton Bekerman. Which of his achievements most benefitted the people of Haiti?

the republic of haiti
The Republic of Haiti

Was the Haitian revolution truly successful?

  • - Poorest and least developed countries in the world
  • Problems ranging from near-constant political upheaval, health crises, severe environmental degradation and an annual barrage of hurricanes.

On Jan. 12, 2010, a devastating earthquake struck Haiti, reducing much of its capital to rubble. It was the worst earthquake in the region in more than 200 years.

  • Total cost of the disaster was between $7.2 billion to $13.2 billion,
  • Death Toll = 250,000 - 300,000.
cia factbook