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The Siege of Constantinople

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  1. The Siege of Constantinople The turning point between East and West The defining moment of the Ottoman Empire The End of the Eastern Roman Empire By: Adam Love Table of Contents

  2. The Siege of Constantinople (1453 C.E.) ~Chronology~ ~Useful Links~ The_Fall_of_Constantinople.mov Modern_Istanbul.mov ~Maps~ April 6 April 12 April 18 April 20 April 22 May 7 May 18 May 29 Byzantium Constantinople Extent of Constantinople under Theodosius Title Next Back Bibliography

  3. April 6, 1453 • Mehmed II arrived on the plains before Constantinople, and began preliminary bombardment of the fortifications. Next Table of Contents

  4. April 12, 1453 • Advanced the cannons to the edge of the great ditch (Foss) and began the “first general preparatory gunpowder artillery bombardment in history.” • After 6 days of bombardment the outer towers were beginning to crumble. Next Back Table of Contents

  5. April 18, 1453 • 2 hours after sunset, Mehmed II begins assault with his elite Janissary Force. • Repelled by Giustiniani with his 700 Genoese Knights • Over 200 Janissary dead, no Knights killed. • Mehmed II orders his admiral Baltoghlu to attack and destroy the chain boom across the Golden Horn. • Byzantine Fleet repelled the Ottoman Fleet Next Back Table of Contents

  6. April 20, 1453 • Rescue ships sent by Pope (3 Genoese Galleys and 1 Imperial Transport). • Baltoghlu was unable to stop the ships reaching the city of Constantinople. • Mehmed II began to focus his energy on controlling the Golden Horn and the waters surrounding Constantinople. Next Back Table of Contents

  7. April 22, 1453 • Mehmed II orders thousands of workmen to begin portaging his navy across the land just north of the city to bypass the chain boom. • By dawn the following day, all of the Ottoman Fleet, some 70 ships, had been safely and ingeniously hauled across land using teams of Oxen and human effort. • The Emperor Constantine tried to burn the Ottoman Fleet a few days later during the night. He did not succeed. Next Back Table of Contents

  8. May 7, 1453 • Ottoman’s launch another major assault against the Mesoteichion sector involving 30,000-50,000 men. Next Back Table of Contents

  9. May 18, 1453 • Under the direction of Mehmed II, the Ottoman’s constructed an armored siege tower to protect workers attempting to fill in the ditch (foss). • During the night, Giustiniani led a sortie out and blew the armored siege tower up with gun powder. Next Back Table of Contents

  10. May 29, 1453 • Mehmed II planned a simultaneous 3 point attack, against the walls Blachermae Gate, the Lycus Valley, and the Romanus Gate. • It was in the Lycus Valley the Mehmed II planned on being successful. • Used three waves of attackers, denying the defenders any time to rest or repair. • Bashi-Bazouk Infantry, Provincial Levies Regulars, Elite Janissary Infantry. • Killed the Emperor Constantine in battle, Siege of Constantinople ended. Back Table of Contents

  11. The Fall of Constantinople Table of Contents

  12. Modern Istanbul Table of Contents

  13. Table of Contents

  14. Table of Contents

  15. Bibliography • Discovery Education. “United Streaming.” <http://streaming.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm> accessed November 8, 2007. • Gabriel, Richard A. “Empires At War: Volume III.” Greenwood Press, 2005. • Finkel, Caroline. “Osman’s Dream.” Basic Books, 2005. Table of Contents