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Writing the Research Paper. Zooey 9810003m Angela 9810010m. Chapter I: Introduction. A. Area of Study: Provide a general introduction to the topic; outline the problem B. Definition of Terms: Define important terms & concepts C. The purpose of the study

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writing the research paper

Writing the Research Paper

Zooey 9810003m

Angela 9810010m

chapter i introduction
Chapter I: Introduction
  • A. Area of Study: Provide a general

introduction to the topic; outline the


  • B. Definition of Terms: Define important

terms & concepts

  • C. The purpose of the study
  • D. Assumptions: Make hypotheses for

the proposed study

chapter ii literature review
Chapter II: Literature Review
  • A. History: Provide a review of the

historical background

  • B. Current Literature: Include a review of

current relevant with the analysis of

pros and cons

  • C. Research Problem: Provide research


chapter iii methodology
Chapter III: Methodology
  • A. Research Questions and Hypotheses:

Propose them based on literature

review (major points)

  • B. Research Design:
  • Quantitative research: Use a survey (three design considerations; discuss how to design questionnaire)
  • Qualitative research: Use interviews (present a rationale for the design of choice)

*Grounded theory: Develop a theory after gathering

and analyzing the data

C. Sample:
  • Quantitative research: Describe sampling techniques and rationale for method used for selecting the sample and sample size
  • Qualitative research: describe the criteria for the selection for the participants and setting
research questions and hypotheses
Research Questions and Hypotheses:
  • 4 categories of research questions:
  • 1. Descriptive questions: Provide information about what is or has been happening related to the research topic
  • 2. Normative questions: Provide information compared with some standard or expected observation
  • 3. Correlative questions: Identify relationship
  • 4. Impact questions: Indentify effect
research questions and hypotheses1
Research Questions and Hypotheses:
  • Two types of hypotheses:
  • 1. Directional hypothesis:
  • e.g.," If ss can get teachers’ positive comments. (then) they will have a better writing performance because (pro 1).”
  • 2. Null hypothesis:
  • e.g.,” There is no difference between teachers’ positive comments and ss’ writing performance because (con 1).”
research design
Research Design
  • Mixed-Methods Models Design: Apply the quantitative and qualitative methods simultaneously (parallel) or sequentially.
  • 4 design options:
  • 1. Pragmatic parallel mixed-methods
  • 2. Pragmatic sequential mixed-methods
  • 3. Transformative parallel mixed-methods
  • 4. Transformative sequential mixed-methods
survey research
Survey Research
  • 3 design considerations:
  • 1. Descriptive approach: A survey describing the characteristics of a sample at one point in time (e.g., senior students’ research paper writing difficulties in the Department of Applied English at I-Shou University in 2009)
2. Cross-sectional approach: A survey examining several groups at one point in time (e.g., different grade level students’ writing difficulties in the AE Department at ISU in 2009)
  • 3. Longitudinal approach: A survey examining one group at different points in time (e.g., 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year graduates’ perceptions of RP course in the AE Department at ISU in 2006-2008)
5 probability sampling:
  • 1. Simple random sampling: Each member has a number (code) and each population has an equal chance to be selected
  • 2. Systematic sampling: Select every nth name from the list, so need to estimate the needed sample size
  • 3. Stratified sampling: Divide the populations into subgroups (e.g., genders) or levels (e.g., proficiency levels) and then draw randomly from each subgroup
4. Cluster sampling: Choose groups of individuals (e.g., city blocks or classrooms in a school, and study all of the samples there)
  • 5. Multistage sampling: Combine sampling strategies (e.g., use cluster sampling to randomly select classrooms and use random sampling to select a sample with each classroom)
data collection procedures
Data Collection Procedures
  • Quantitative research: Describe the procedures that the data will be collected by using a survey
      • Open Questions
      • Close Questions: Classificational questions, List questions, Ranking questions, Scale (rating) questions
data collection procedures1
Data Collection Procedures
  • Qualitative research: Describe the use of audiotapes, note-taking
  • Interviewer is the important tool.
data analysis procedures
Data Analysis Procedures
  • Quantitative research: Describe how you handled the data; provide statistical procedures (e.g., compute mean score or frequency)
data analysis procedures1
Data Analysis Procedures
  • Qualitative research: Describe data analysis strategies; explain multiple sources of data
  • Form your grounded theory
limitations of the study
Limitations of the Study
  • Explain anticipated limitations of the study
  • Ex: Sample size is too small.
  • Just report what the data say (you may give the subheading based on each hypothesis)
  • Findings from the quantitative results (% or mean)

Ex: 4.2 means that most participant agree that…

B. Findings from the qualitative results (3 excerpts)

C. Fit into your hypotheses or not

(e.g., broadly/partially/do not fit)

discussions and conclusion
Discussions and Conclusion
  • A. Interpret the meanings of data (discuss “why” your participants would think/say so)
  • B. Discuss whether the findings fit into the literature or not
  • C. Form any grounded theory?
discussions and conclusion1
Discussions and Conclusion
  • D. The results will be useful to “whom”?
  • E. Any limitation to reach the generalizability
  • F. Draw conclusions and suggestions (about improvement)

*based on your or minority’s opinions