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THIGH & HIP - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THIGH & HIP

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  1. THIGH & HIP

  2. Every Athlete’s Injury • The one area of the body that all athlete’s need to pay greatest attention to is the leg - more importantly the thigh - video - this is especially true for sprinters • We are going to look at three injuries that are the result of speed/velocity • “I pulled my GROIN!” • “That’s a hammy!” • “I got a charley horse”

  3. The thigh is the area of the body spanning distally from the knee and proximally to the hip • It is composed of a single bone, the FEMUR and many muscles • largest, longest and second strongest bone in the human body • can withstand 30 times an adult’s weight! Head Greater Trochanter Lesser Trochanter Shaft (Linea aspera) Patellar surface Lateral condyle Medial condyle

  4. Trochanter: Condyle: Bony prominences at the proximal end of the femur; muscle attachment for hip and thigh muscles A rounded prominence at the end of a bone, most often for articulation with another bone

  5. The Pelvis Sacrum Iliac crest Ilium Anterior Superior iliac crest Anterior Inferior iliac crest Coccyx Pubis Ischium Acetabulum Ischial tuberosity

  6. The Hip Joint • the hip joint is the articulation of the proximal end of the femur (head) and the acetabulum of the pelvis What type of joint? Ball and socket • is the primary connection between the appendicular skeleton of the lower body and the axial skeleton

  7. to understand the musculature of the hip and thigh we will look at it from 4 different areas: flexor/extensors, adductor, anterior and posterior

  8. Hip Flexors and Extensors The Glutes Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus

  9. Gluteus maximus O: crest of ilium, sacrum and coccyx I: greater trochanter of femur and iliotibial tract F: hip extension and external rotation Gluteus medius O: lateral surface of ilium I: posterior surface of greater trochanter F: abduction and internal rotation of the hip Gluteus minimus O: lateral surface of ilium I: anterior surface of greater trochanter F: abduction and internal rotation of the hip

  10. Tensor fasciae latae O: anterior iliac crest I: iliotibial tract F: flex, abduct and medially rotate thigh Sartorius O: anterior superior iliac spin I: medial surface of tibia F: (crosses 2 joints) flexion and lateral rotation of hip and helps flex knee

  11. Gluteal muscles: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DdGD1dGOEAw&feature=related Adductors: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1loym2KxcfQ&feature=related Anterior: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFmIK0rtw98&feature=related Posterior: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FdWHFl8jo4&feature=related

  12. Psoas minor -present in less than 50% of the population -evolutionary remnant Iliacus Iliopsoas O: inner surface of ilium I: less trochanter of femur F: hip flexion Psoas major O: first 5 lumbar vertebrae I: lesser trochanter of femur F: hip and trunk flexion

  13. Hip Adductors Pectineus O: supeior pubis I: lesser trochanter to linea aspera F: hip adduction and flexion Adductor longus Adductor brevis O: body of pubis I: linea aspera F: hip adduction O: inferior of pubis I: linea aspera F: hip adduction and flexion Adductor magnus Gracilis O: inferior pubis and ischial tuberosity I: linea aspera F: hip adduction and extension O: inferior pubis I: below medial tibial condyle F: adducts hip and flexes knee

  14. Gluteal muscles: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DdGD1dGOEAw&feature=related Adductors: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1loym2KxcfQ&feature=related Anterior: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFmIK0rtw98&feature=related Posterior: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FdWHFl8jo4&feature=related

  15. Anterior Thigh (Quadriceps) –4 muscles Vastus lateralis O: lateral side of linea aspera and greater trochanter F: knee extension and hip flexion Rectus femoris O: anterior inferior iliac spine F: knee extension and hip flexion Vastus intermedius O: anterior shaft of femur F: knee extension Vastus medialis O: medial aspect of linea aspera F: knee extension All quad muscles join into patellar tendon, wrap around the patella and insert on the tibial tuberosity of tiba

  16. Rectus femoris

  17. Gluteal muscles: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DdGD1dGOEAw&feature=related Adductors: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1loym2KxcfQ&feature=related Anterior: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFmIK0rtw98&feature=related Posterior: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FdWHFl8jo4&feature=related

  18. Posterior Thigh -Hamstrings Semitendinosus O: ischial tuberosity I: tendon inserts on proximal tibia below medial condyle F: flexes and internally rotates knee and extends hip Biceps femoris O: 2 heads – 1 off ischial tuberosity and 1 off linea aspera I: heads join into head of fibula F: extensor of hip and flexor of knee; rotates flexed knee Semimembranosus O: ischial tuberosity I: posterior aspect of medial tibial condyle F: flexes and medially rotates knee; extends hip

  19. Gluteal muscles: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DdGD1dGOEAw&feature=related Adductors: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1loym2KxcfQ&feature=related Anterior: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFmIK0rtw98&feature=related Posterior: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FdWHFl8jo4&feature=related

  20. “I pulled my GROIN!” (GROIN strain) Adductor longus ** Remember, ligaments sprain and MUSCLES STRAIN** • An injury to the one or more of the thigh adductor (groin) muscles Caused by quick acceleration or a sudden change in direction • 3 Grades of strains Grade I: mild discomfort; no limit to activity Grade II: moderate discomfort; limited running/jumping; some swelling and bruising Grade III: PAIN when walking; swelling and bruising Treatment = R.I.C.E • may have to limit physical activity depending on severity • gradual introduction back to sports

  21. “That’s a hammy!” (Strained hamstring) • An injury to the posterior muscles of the thigh (hamstrings) Caused by overextension of leg during high velocity activities • 3 Grades of strains Grade I: minor tears; tightness in knee flexion, discomfort when walking, minor swelling Grade II: partial tear; limp; pain in knee flexion and palpation; swelling Grade III: complete tear; crutches?, PAIN, swelling immediate Treatment = R.I.C.E - video - limit physical activity depending on severity -Anti inflammatory drugs -stretching

  22. “I got a charley horse” (Quadriceps contusion) • An injury often to the anterior muscles of thigh (quads) Often caused by a rapid impact to the muscle -muscle compressed against a bone (femur) • Also called “dead leg” • 2 types: Intramuscular: tearing of muscle within sheath; limited visible bleeding, but loss of function; days or weeks to recover Intermuscular: tearing of muscle and part of sheath; visible bleeding, visible bruising, recovery quicker • 3 Grades: Grade I: tightness in thigh; little swelling and some trouble walking Grade II: swelling, pain upon palpation, unable to full flex at knee, pain during activity; limp Grade III: immediate swelling, severe pain, crutches; out 3-12 weeks