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Transmission Expansion in the Competitive Environment: the Italian Case. Ettore Bompard (Politecnico di Torino) Angelo Invernizzi (ex Cesi) Roberto Napoli (Politecnico di Torino). The Italian Market Structure (start: 1999). Generation

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Transmission Expansion in the Competitive Environment:

the Italian Case

Ettore Bompard (Politecnico di Torino)

Angelo Invernizzi (ex Cesi)

Roberto Napoli (Politecnico di Torino)

the italian market structure start 1999
The Italian Market Structure (start: 1999)


several GenCos, with an incumbent producer, former monopolist, owning 50 % of the total capacity


ISO: GRTN (Gestore della Rete Nazionale)

PX: GME (Gestore Mercato Elettrico)

GridCo: TERNA + others


AEGG (Autorità Energia Elettrica Gas)

AU (Single Buyer)

some figures on the italian market 2003
Some figures on the Italian Market (2003)


Total Production320 TWh

Mix: 69.5 % thermal

13.2 % hydro

1.5 % geothermal

0.4 % renewable

0.0 % nuclear

15.4 % from abroad

Peak Power53 GW

Bilateral contracts 70 %

Power Exchange 30 %

Load increase 3 % /year

trend in the evolution of the transmission network


































Trend in the Evolution of the Transmission Network

km of equivalent 380 kV

utilization index

Start of the liberalization 1999

after the 2003 blackouts
After the 2003 blackouts …..

Clear needs:

Relevant increase in new generation plants

re-opening discussions on the best mix

(time to realize: 3-4 years)

Urgent expansion of the grid

expand the cross border connections

(time to realize: 7-10 years)

restructuring the organization structure
Restructuring the organization structure….

Previous model: ISO- Gridco

separation between property (TERNA, …)

and operation (GRTN)

New model: Transco

from October 2005

..and the financing

Regulated investment :

update the existing grid and build new lines

Merchant investment: to attract private investors

ue rules 1228 june 2003 for cross border exchanges
UE rules (1228 / June 2003) for cross border exchanges
  • avoid dominant position in the market (limit on the maximum capacity assigned to one trader);
  • ensure the full availability of the interconnections capacity for the market
  • reassign capacity not used to the market in open, transparent and non-discriminatory manner
  • allow exclusion of third party access for DC (and expectionally AC) connections in particular cases (high investment risks). Details of the exclusions (how much, how long, …) shall be agreed by the national regulatory authorities
the italian model for cross border exchanges
priority right up to 80% of the transmission capacity for the financed project;

maximum capacity for a single investor ≤ 800 MW;

ten years priority right (from the start o operation)

operation under the economical and technical control control of the GRTN (ISO)

investors must present an Expression of Interest EoI to be approved by the GRTN

The Italian model for cross border exchanges
results of the call for eoi
huge amount of interest (up to 14 GW)

anomalous solutions, with line ampacity over-rated w.r.t. the input and output capacity

danger of uncontrolled balance between the national and foreign producers, damaging the development of national generation

As a consequence: delayed decisions

Results of the call for EoI
key points for the expansion
Key points for the expansion

The relative importance is changed:

↑ System vulnerability against internal faults and malitious external attacks

↑ Social acceptances

no use in forcing consensus

↓ Adequate resources

from the tariffs

from the market


This is a very hot and critical topic.

In addition to the complications derived from the liberalization process, the negative evolution of the social and international relations do allow several negative worries on the system vulnerability

societal consensus
Societal consensus
  • Criticalities:
  • problems in finding spaces with acceptable
  • impact on land and people
  • inefficiency of the preventive authorization process
  • generalized social opposition (NIMB)
societal opposition
Societal opposition ….
  • Generalized strong negative feelings for:
  • Fields dangers
  • Visual and touristic losses
  • Land and buildings depreciation
  • Constraints on the land use
  • Variations in the habitat
try to gain consensus
Try to gain consensus ….
  • Strategic Environment Evaluation (SEE)
  • keywords:
    • Information
    • Partecipation
    • Consultation
    • Define preventively a set of technical corridors with proper accepted classification and priority at the various levels of the state, regional and local organizations.
encouraging results of see
Encouraging results of SEE….
  • Shift from a negative attitude to cohoperation
  • Common use of the land databases
  • Share of the programs and times
  • Committment to prevent large popular refusal

Reshaping the grid


  • New conductors
  • Multiple lines
  • Voltage increase (220 to 380 kV)
  • allowing higher temperatures
  • more lines on the same poles
  • requiring higher poles

Increasing ampacity

Reducing environment impact

  • New poles
  • Underground cables
  • artistic design
  • when no other solution is accepted
  • Temperature control
  • Configuration control
  • Real time temperature measurement
  • Automatic reconfiguration

Optimizing use


New international connections (on work or under authorization)

Lienz (A)

Robbia (CH)



S. Fiorano


Italy - Switzerland CH 2005

Italy – Osterreich A auth.

Italy – Slovenia SLO auth.

new expansion plan 2006 2010

Udine Ovest - Okroglo

Redipuglia - Udine Ovest

Trino - Lacchiarella

Area Venezia - Area Treviso


Colunga – Calenzano*

Foggia - Benevento


Sardegna - Continente

Montecorvino - Benevento

Chiaramonte - Ciminna

Sorgente - Rizziconi

* Riclassamento a 380KV

** Nuovo intervento di sviluppo

New expansion plan 2006-2010
the investment side
The investment side

Analysis of the past has made quite clear that in the next years money will come mainly from public investment (tariffs).

Market-driven investments have been successfull at the proposal stage, but difficult to implement in the most important part (cross borders links, with different scenarios at the ends)

New proposals can speed up the transmission expansion, in some way sterilizing the interaction effects on the grid

some proposals
Some proposals

To simplify the interactions, in some cases we can transform a transmission expansion problem into an equivalent generation expansion problem:

long feeder concept: let the Genco decide the connection point, regardleess of the distance between the generators and the injection point

virtual generating line: let consider a controlled line as a combination of a GenCo and a connected Demand, partecipating to the market with the constraint of producing and absorbing the same power at the opposite end of the line


New ideas and are required to attract more easily private market driven investments and speed up the realization process

New tools are required for a more meaningful decision process, that takes into account the true key points


Thanks ! Благодарность !

Prof. R. Napoli Politecnico di Torino, Italy


Политехнический Турин, Италия