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Alkenes. Bonding. The electron configuration of carbon is. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2. When carbon bonds in alkenes, the electron configuration changes. 1s 2 2s 1 2p 3.

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Presentation Transcript
bonding
Bonding

The electron configuration of carbon is

1s22s22p2

When carbon bonds in alkenes, the electron configuration changes

1s22s12p3

The 2s electron and two of the 2p electrons combine to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals, leaving a spare p-orbital on each of the carbon atoms

slide3

H

H

C

C

H

A hybrid orbital from each carbon overlaps to form a σ-bond

H

slide4

The p-orbitals overlap causing areas of electron density spanning across the top and the bottom of the σ-bond joining the two carbon atoms.

This is the π-bond.

test for unsaturation
Test for unsaturation
  • If an alkene is shaken with bromine water (Br2) the colour changes from reddy-brown to colourless as dihalogenoalkanes are formed.
reaction mechanism
Reaction Mechanism
  • This is a two step reaction;
  • Formation of a carbocation by electrophillic addition
  • Rapid reaction with the negative Br ion
reactions with hydrogen halides
Reactions with hydrogen halides

If an alkene is bubbled through concentrated HCl(aq) at room temperature, a monosubstituted chloro-alkane is formed.

addition of steam
Addition of steam

When steam and a gaseous alkene are passed over a solid phosphoric acid catalyst (H3PO4) at 600K and 6MPa, alcohols are formed.

addition of hydrogen
Addition of hydrogen

If a gaseous alkene and H2 gas are passed over a finely divided nickel catalyst at high pressure and temperature (420K and 500kPa for making margarine!) an alkane is formed.