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Interactive Ophthalmology Quiz
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  1. Interactive Ophthalmology Quiz Mr Behrooz Golchin Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon

  2. 10 minutes Section 1 Section 2 Spot diagnosis • Case presentations

  3. Please participate • Don’t be embarrassed • Shout out the answers

  4. Section 1 Case presentations

  5. Case 1 • 35 year old man • C/O watery Rt eye • Eye becoming progressively painful • Photophobic • The vision is a little blurred

  6. O/E VA is 6/12. • His right eye is photosensitive. • The redness is diffuse but more pronounced around the cornea. • The cornea appears a bit hazy and his pupil is miosed.

  7. If you dilate the pupil, you will notice that the pupil now has a scalloped appearance. • What is the diagnosis?

  8. Anterior Uveitis • Anterior uveitis refers to inflammation of the iris and/or ciliary body and • Usually presents with a painful, red eye. • Patients often c/o decreased vision and a watery discharge.

  9. Anterior Uveitis • Photophobia is 2’ to spasm of inflamed iris and ciliary muscles. • Visual acuity varies depending on the severity of the inflammation.

  10. Anterior Uveitis • The pupil is often miosed • if untreated, the pupil margin may adhere to the lens due to the formation of posterior synechiae.

  11. Anterior Uveitis • Corneal precipitates may occur on the endothelium • hypopion (pus in the anterior chamber) may be present in severe cases.

  12. Treatment • Dilating drops • relieve ocular discomfort by reducing ciliary muscle spasm • prevent the formation of posterior synechiae. • Topical corticosteroid drops to treat the inflammation • Periocular steroid injections or even systemic corticosteroids may be required in more severe cases.

  13. Case 2 • 30 y.o lady • 5 day Hx of FB sensation and redness Lt eye. • c/o reduced vision and watery • No previous eye Hx

  14. O/E VA is 6/9 • Mild diffuse conj injection. • A whitish area seen in the pupillary zone • What would you do next?

  15. Instillation of 2% fluorescein shows a branching ulcer on the lateral side of the cornea. • What is the Dx?

  16. Herpes simplex Keratitis • Dendritic ulcer • Confined to epithelium but deeper tissues may become involved. • Stained with fluorescein and rose bengal • Rx topical aciclovir

  17. Dendritic ulcer

  18. Geographic Epithelial keratitis • Dendritic ulcers coalesce and enlarge to form this larger ulcer. • Can occur as a result of inappropriate steroid use. • Do not treat a red eye with steroid unless HSK is ruled out.

  19. Case 3 • A 9 y.o. boy c/o sever itching in both eyes. • his mother says that he is constantly rubbing his eyes. • The eyes water a lot and bright light hurts them. • Not sticky, no discharge. • He is currently on treatment for asthma.

  20. O/E , his VA is 6/9 in both eyes • He is very photophobic. • His eyelids are red. • The conjunctiva is mildly injected. • His corneas are clear and do not stain with fluorescein. • What do you do next?

  21. Upon everting his upper eyelids, you notice several raised, fleshy lesions on the conjunctival surface of the upper lids. • What is the diagnosis?

  22. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis • Vernal keratoconjunctivitis • most commonly occurs in young boys • often have a history of atopy. • Symptoms include • severe, chronic ocular itching • photophobia, • blepharospasm, • mucoid/watery discharge • blurred vision also occur frequently.

  23. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis • Signs include giant papillae under the upper eyelid • they have a typical cobblestone appearance.

  24. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis • Limbitis • a fleshy, gelatinous ring around the limbus, • contains whitish spots called Trantas dots.

  25. Treatment • Mild cases respond to: • topical antihistamines and artificial tear drops • topical mast cell stabilisers • oral antihistamines is often required in cases of moderate severity. • Severe cases frequently require: • short courses of topical corticosteroids, such as fluorometholone or dexamethasone • intraocular pressure need to be monitored. • In very severe cases • topical immunomodulatory drugs, such as cyclosporine or tacrolimus, may be needed to control the inflammation.

  26. Case 4 • A 32 y.o. female c/o redness and increasing pain in her left eye x 3/7. • The eye is painful to touch • The pain has woken her from sleep over the last two nights. • Eye is a little watery but there is no significant discharge • visual acuity has not changed.

  27. O/E VA is 6/6 and her eyelids are normal. • large area of redness, temporal to the cornea. • The eye is very tender to touch. • looking at the eye in natural daylight, the underlying sclera has a purplish hue. • The rest of the examination is unremarkable. • What is the likely Dx?

  28. Scleritis • Scleritismay be either diffuse or nodular. • Pain is a prominent feature. • Often wakes the patient from sleep during the night. • Visual acuity is often not affected in the early stages.

  29. Scleritis • Etiology: Collagen vascular disease RA, SLE, gout, syphilis • Complications: • Peripheral ulcerative keratitis with corneal perforation • Secondary glaucoma • Scleral melting and perforation • Exudative retinal detachment

  30. Treatment • Scleritis often responds adequately to oral NSAIDs. • > 50% of patients with scleritis have an associated systemic disease. • They require specialist referral for systemic workup • May need potent immunosuppressive therapy.

  31. Section 2 Spot Diagnosis

  32. Thank you for your attention