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Chapter 9 - Taxonomy. Taxonomy – the science of classifying organisms – has two purposes:. To identify the organism To represent relationships among them. History of Taxonomy:.

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taxonomy the science of classifying organisms has two purposes
Taxonomy – the science of classifying organisms – has two purposes:
  • To identify the organism
  • To represent relationships among them
history of taxonomy
History of Taxonomy:
  • Aristotle – believed in the “ladder of nature” – sponges were at the bottom and humans were at the top – he classified things as either plants or animals ( see fig.1 pg.326)
9 1 taxonomic systems
9.1 Taxonomic Systems
  • Carl Linnaeus- 18th century – he classified organisms based on structure
  • The more features organisms have in common, the closer their relationship
slide5
He introduced binomial nomenclature: a 2 name system for naming organism using Latin or Greek ( Latin is a dead language)
  • Ex. Castor Canadensis – beaver
  • Genus species - the Genus name is always a capital letter
the 2 names indicate similarities in anatomy embryology evolution ancestry
The 2 names indicate similarities in anatomy, embryology & evolution ancestry
  • Ex. – Ursus americanus
  • Ursus horribilis
  • koala bear Genus: PhascolarctosSpecies: cinereus
  • Panda bear Genus Ailuropoda
modern taxonomy
Modern Taxonomy
  • Today we use these major categories and evidence to support classification:
  • Fossil records – they provide clues, but are rarely complete
  • Anatomy – a) homologous structures – similar in structure but may have different functions
  • b) vestigial structures – structures that once had a purpose but no longer serve a function
  • Comparative embryology – ex. – all vertebrates have a stage as an embryo where they look alike
  • Comparative biochemistry – comparing DNA, genes and proteins
levels of classification organisms are classified based on 7 taxa levels
Levels of ClassificationOrganisms are classified based on 7 taxa (levels)
  • King Phyl Came Over For Good Spaghetti
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
slide19
Phylogeny – the history of the evolution of organisms – often shown in a diagram called a phylogenetic tree – see pg.329
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