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  1. Bell Work: Review from yesterdayOn a half sheet of paper, define the following terms from yesterday:TextContextSubtext

  2. Activity • In your group, create a definition for HISTORY. • Once you have shared ideas and created a final definition, write it neatly on a sheet of blue or yellow paper.

  3. What is History? • History is… • The present’s use of the past. We use it to guide our future. • The effort to reconstruct the past to discover what people thought, what they did, and how their beliefs and actions continue to influence human life.

  4. Why do we study it? • “Those who can’t remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” (Avoid past mistakes) • Provides identity, helps us understand our place in the world. How did we get here? Why is our world as it is? • Gives us role models and heroes • Improves judgment, makes us better thinkers

  5. How Do We Study It? • Artifacts – the man-made objects uncovered by archaeologists (pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings, monuments, etc…) • The only way we can study prehistory – human history before writing was developed, app. 3,000 B.C. • Primary Sources – a firsthand or eyewitness account of an event by someone who lived through it • Secondary Sources – interpret and analyze primary sources; one or more steps removed from the event

  6. Primary/Secondary Source Activity • Get back in your previous groups. • Based on these definitions, identify your object or document as an artifact, primary source, or secondary source. Defend your rationale. • Write on your paper in notebook • Title of source • Which type of source it is. • Why you think it’s that type.

  7. Bellwork: Add this list of examples to your notes from yesterday. • PRIMARY/ARTIFACTS • Diaries • Speeches • Letters • Interviews • Film footage • Photos • Autobiographies • Government Records • SECONDARY • Textbooks • Encyclopedias • Research Papers • Biographies **The difference between an artifact and a primary source is that an artifact is usually a man-made object. It is still considered a TYPE of primary source. (ex: coins, clothing, poster)

  8. Christopher Columbus & Discovery Day Activity: • Now, therefore, I, _________, President of the United States of America, in pursuance of the aforesaid joint resolution, do hereby appoint Friday, October 21, ____, the anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus, as a general holiday for the people of the United States. On that day let the people, so far as possible, cease from toil and devote themselves to such exercises as may best express honor to the discoverer and their appreciation of the great achievements of the four completed centuries of American life. • Columbus stood in his age as the pioneer of progress and enlightenment. The system of universal education is in our age the most prominent and salutary feature of the spirit of enlightenment, and it is peculiarly appropriate that the schools be made by the people the center of the day's demonstration. Let the national flag float over every schoolhouse in the country and the exercises be such as shall impress upon our youth the patriotic duties of American citizenship. • In the churches and in the other places of assembly of the people let there be expressions of gratitude to Divine Providence for the devout faith of the discoverer and for the divine care and guidance which has directed our history and so abundantly blessed our people.

  9. Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States of America, in pursuance of the aforesaid joint resolution, do hereby appoint Friday, October 21, 1892, the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus, as a general holiday for the people of the United States. On that day let the people, so far as possible, cease from toil and devote themselves to such exercises as may best express honor to the discoverer and their appreciation of the great achievements of the four completed centuries of American life. • Columbus stood in his age as the pioneer of progress and enlightenment. The system of universal education is in our age the most prominent and salutary feature of the spirit of enlightenment, and it is peculiarly appropriate that the schools be made by the people the center of the day's demonstration. Let the national flag float over every schoolhouse in the country and the exercises be such as shall impress upon our youth the patriotic duties of American citizenship. • In the churches and in the other places of assembly of the people let there be expressions of gratitude to Divine Providence for the devout faith of the discoverer and for the divine care and guidance which has directed our history and so abundantly blessed our people.

  10. Bellwork Quiz on a ½ sheet • What federal holiday did Pres. Harrison establish in 1892? • WHY did he choose this person to honor? Explain the context of that decision.

  11. Review from Yesterday • Let’s discuss each of these sources briefly • To teach you HOW to look at sources • And how to put them all in context. It’s an INVESTIGATION, just like in science!

  12. RETEACHING!! Answers from yesterday • Not exactly.... In honor of Columbus because he found America He was Catholic and wanted votes. • To gain votes. • B/c CC was Catholic • More votes from the Catholics. • He established it b/c he wanted Ireland's and Italy's votes. • There was an increase in Irish immigrants so he was going to form Columbus Day to get their votes. • Pres. Harrison chose Columbus due to his discovery, but also for the fact that he was Catholic.  Harrison was also Catholic.

  13. CLOSER!! • He established it because he wanted to have a day to remember who discovered America and a day for the Catholics to have a person to honor. • There was an increase in Irish immigrants so he was going to form Columbus day to get their votes. • Christopher Columbus was Catholic and people thought of him as a great and honorable man.  He (who??) chose Columbus because he wanted to appeal to the Catholics so they would vote for him. • Because a lot of Catholics were immigrating to the US and he was running for reelection.  To gain their votes, he gave a famous Catholic (Christopher Columbus) his own holiday.

  14. Pretty much there…. • President Harrison was running in a presidential election.  A lot of the population in America were Catholics (phrase this differently....) • Columbus was a Catholic.  So he (who?) wanted quick votes as the election came closer so he established Columbus Day to get Catholic votes to win the election. • He chose this person bc he was the one to find America and he was Catholic.  He (who?)thought these were important characteristics to recognize because there were a lot of immigrants moving to America from countries whose religion was Catholic.  He wanted to reach out to gain more votes. • He chose Columbus bc Columbus was Catholic and at the time, there were a lot of Catholic people moving to America.  Harrison wanted the votes of all the Catholic people so he could win the election.  

  15. Taken together, what do these sources tell us? Correct your paper • 1. Proclamation • 2. excerpt from a Catholic magazine • 3. Establishment of Knights of Columbus • 4. Immigration chart • 5. Harrison’s speech about the independence of Ireland • 6. Statement from the “Know-Nothings” • 7. Kennedy’s speech running for Pres in 1960

  16. REVIEW • Tell me if the following source is primary or secondary: • 1 Obama’s First Inaugural Address • 2 A census from 1920 • 3 The Diary of Anne Frank • 4 The U.S. Constitution • 5 A piece of Aztec pottery • 6 Our World Civ textbook • 7 The televised 1960 presidential debate • 8 FDR’s “Fireside Chat” during the 1930’s

  17. Challenges • What is challenging about studying prehistory or ancient history? • What is challenging about studying modern history?

  18. How do we know if a source is reliable or true? • Look for bias • If 2 or more dependable sources record the same thing • But history is still interpretive in nature