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Lesson 1: Absolute Zero

Learning Objectives:

- describe the term absolute zero
- convert between Kelvin and Celsius scales of temperature
- describe how the temperature of a gas relates to the speed and kinetic energy of its particles
- recognise that the Kelvin temperature of a gas and the average kinetic energy of its particles are directly proportional.

Starter

- Draw the particles in a solution which has been heated and one that is cold.

Kinetic Theory Model

- Change your movement according to the volume.

Celsius to Kelvin?

To change 100 °C into Kelvin just add 273.

So 100 °C = (100 + 273) K = 373 K.

What are the following temperatures in Kelvin?

0 °C, 20 °C, 37 °C, 500 °C, -5 °C, -169 °C

Kelvin to Celsius?

To change 100 K into Celsius just subtract 273.

So 500 K = (500 - 273) K = 227 °C.

What are the following temperatures in Celsius?

0 K, 200 K, 300 K, 1 000 K

Making Thermometers

- Fill a bowl with crushed ice.
- Put a little coloured dye in the flask, then fill it to the top with crushed ice. Stand it in the bowl with crushed ice and leave it for 15 mins.
- Push the rubber bung on, and mark the level of the risen liquid.
- Then put the flask into a water bath and leave for 15 mins.
- Mark the new level.
- Divide the distance between the two marks into 5 equal divisions. Each division will represent 10 degrees.
- Leave the flask on the bench for 15 mins, and mark the new level.

Summary

At __________ (–273 ºC or 0 K) particles __________ moving. You convert ºC to K by adding __________. Increasing the __________ increases the speed of the particles. The _________ in a gas are continually colliding with each other. The kelvin temperature and the average __________ energy of the particles are directly __________ to each other (i.e. double the __________ temperature, __________ the kinetic energy).

273 absolute zero double kelvin

kinetic particles proportional stop temperature

Plenary

- Explain how we can move from degrees Celsius to degrees Kelvin and back again

Plenary

- Explain how we can move from degrees Celsius to degrees Kelvin and back again
- Explain why this weather balloon is released when more gas could be added

Charles Law Simulation

http://www.chem.iastate.edu/group/Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/flashfiles/gaslaw/charles_law.html

Kinetic Theory Model

http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Experiment_365.html

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