Mobile Learning Ray Pastore, Ph.D. University of North Carolina Wilmington
Introduction • This presentation addresses mobile learning by discussing the design and development of mobile apps and websites • Describes mobile web development in the Master’s level Instructional Technology program at the University of North Carolina Wilmington • Shows examples of some of the mobile websites students are developing
Defining Mobile Learning • Stevens and Kitchenham (2011) define mobile learning as “the use of a wireless handheld device; a cell phone, personal digital assistant (PDA), mini-computer, or iPod to engage in some form of meaningful learning (p.3)”.
What are Mobile Application? Can be downloaded directly onto a mobile device using the application store on the mobile device or can be downloaded from a computer (i.e. Apple iTunes) and connected to a mobile device
What are Mobile Websites? Mobile websites also known as Mobile web applications are custom built sites designed and developed to be accessed via the mobile device.
Mobile Apps vs Mobile Websites Apps • Need to be installed • Can be on OS • Device dependent • May cost money • Can use phone features (gps etc.) • Do NOT require internet Websites • Can be used on any phone with internet • Not on OS • free (for the most part) • Need to open browser • Difficulty accessing phone features (GPS etc).
Developing on a Mobile Device • Google's Android Java Programming • Apple's iOS: iPod/iPhone/iPad C, C++ • Other Options? Android Google App Inventor Flash HTML Apple HTML All phones (apple, android, blackberry, windows) HTML – HTML5
Being used in education for • to view or send content or email • participate in discussion forums • submit and view assignments • send/receive feedback • enrolling in courses (higher ed) • communication • texting • emergency warning systems • CMS/LMS
Being used in corporations/gov for • Everything on the previous slide plus…. • Gaming • Simulations • Full courses • Flash based content • HTML5 based content *This is where education is headed and Education innovators are already doing this
Study 1 Mobile learning is in it's infancy Research on mobile use and design is just starting to emerge Much of this research focuses on mobile use rather than mobile devices for learning The purpose of this study was to examine students perceptions of developing and using instruction for the mobile web
Methods • Study took place at the University of North Carolina Wilmington • Instructional Technology graduate students • Design • Interviews (6 Students interviewed - semi structured interviews) • Observations (Graduate Class observed) • Role of observer: Instructor • Survey (Survey on mobile use, learning, and satisfaction)
Case • Computer Based Instruction course at UNCW • Develop mobile based instruction via Dreamweaver • Students were web development novice • Students were presented lesson on web and mobile development using Dreamweaver (3 Class periods) • They were asked to read several articles on mobile learning • Assignment • 10 minute instructional tutorials to be developed for smartphones • Published to UNCW webspace • Tested sites on iPod touches
Example Screens http://www.uncw.edu/ed/mit/studentprojects.html
Findings survey: Web to Mobile Web • Many columns/tables->1 Column • Defined Width->% Width • High speed->3G/4G • Data Usage problems • Large Screens->small screens • Keyboard->touch screen/small keyboard • Html->wml | html/flash->html/html5/c++/Java/flash • Very compatible ->Device type (unless HTML) • Plug ins->limited
Sample quotes from interviews • "I think the differences from going from that where you use a keyboard and a mouse to the touch is that you realize how big your fingers are and just a link is not going to be very effective anymore. You need big buttons. You need to direct the learner on where they need to touch to go to the next screen. There is really no pop ups, no imbedded flash type things, its like going from one screen to the next. It seems very linear. “ • "I don’t know that you’re going to be able to do a lot other than just quick reference job aids. I’m not sure you’d want to have a whole instructional system through the, for the iPhone, though maybe,, a SmartPhone. You could do it for maybe tablets, but again you’ve got some Flash limitations. So I would think that job aids and things that you can learn quickly are the realm of smart phone development."
Study 2 In the process of developing methodology Goal: To test Mayer’s multimedia theories Currently no recommendations, with research backing, on designing training/instruction via mobile devices
Conclusion • We are finding significant differences for Computer based training design and Mobile based design • We are doing a lot with mobile learning in our program • Mobile learning course this summer • Mobile instruction development in Computer based instruction • Mobile game development in gaming and simulation class • Mobile interface development in computer interface design • Book chapter published • Paper with techtrends in press • Another research paper being sent out soon • Study 2 in planning stages
Questions? Presentation can be found atmy blog@ http://raypastore.com/wordpress/2012/05/presentation-on-mobile-learning/
References Ally, M. (2009). Mobile Learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training, AU Press Baird, P. & Whitear, C. (2006). Mobile charting with Flash Lite 2: Designing for the mobile device interface. Adobe mobile and device developer center. http://www.adobe.com/devnet/devices/articles/fl2_charting_components.html Bradley, C., Haynes, R., Cook, J., Boyle, T. & Smith, C. (2009). Design and development of multimedia learning objects for mobile phones. In A. Mohamed (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 157-181). dmonton, Canada: Athabasca University Press. Gahran, A. (2011). What’s a mobile app? Retrieved online fromhttp://www.contentious.com/2011/03/02/whats-a-mobile-app/ Griffin, G. (2011). Ten tips for designing mobile learning content. Learning solutions magazine. Retrieved online fromhttp://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/700/ten-tips-for-designing-mobile-learning-content
References Pierre, M., & Diamantini, D. (2009). From E-learning to Mobile Learning: New Opportunities. In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 247–264). Quin, C. (2000). mLearning: Mobile, Wireless, In-Your-Pocket Learning. Quinn, C. (2011). Designing mLearning: tapping into the mobile revolution for organizational performance, Pfeiffer Publishing, USA Stevens, D. and Kitchenham, A. (2011). An analysis of mobile learning in education, business and medicine. In Kitchenham (Ed.) Models for Interdisciplinary Mobile Learning: Delivering Information to Students, IGI publication. Pp. 1 – 25 Traxler (2009) Current state of mobile learning . In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training (pp. 247–264).