Autonomous citizens in United Europe Project realised by: Youth Europe Service Action n. 06-ITA01-S2G01-00306-1 in the framework of the programme SOCRATES – GRUNDTVIG 2
Enlargementof the UE 20 myths and factsabout enlargement to abolish.
20 myths and factsabout enlargement to abolish After many decades of divisions and conflicts, the European Union is uniting pacifically Europe. The six founding countries of the UE are become to you 27 States members. In last the fifteen years, the gravitational push of the UE has contributed to transform the communist regimes of Europe centers them and orients them in modern and efficient democracies. The same impulse has lately inspired radical reforms in Turkey, Croatia and the other countries of the western Balkans. All the Europeans draw advantage from the vicinity with countries characterize to you from stable democracies and healthy market economies. A management of the process increase from part of the UE is fundamental in order to promote in all Europe the peace, the democracy, the State of right and well-being. Many, however, are the citizens of the UE that puts in argument the reasons of the increase. Beyond adopting adapted political, in order to come encounter to the worries of the citizens, it is necessary to oppose myths concrete, this is the' objective of the present note. IS IT TOO FAST? ...................................................... 3 HAS IT WEAKENED TO US? ..........................4 IS IT TOO MUCH expensive? ..................................5 IS IT TOO MUCH DANGEROUS? ........................................... 7 ARE THERE TOO MANY MEMBERS? ...................................................... 8 WHICH ARE THE EVENTUAL ADVANTAGES? ........... 10
Is it too fast? Has the increase of 2004 been too fast? • In spite of the simultaneous adhesion of ten new members in May 2004, the re-unification of Europe has not happened from a day to the other. The adhesion of the countries of Europe centers them and orients them, of Cyprus and of Malta it has had place after fifteen years after from the fall of the Berlin wall. Time in these countries has endured a deep transformation here democratic and economic that it has prepares to you to enter in the UE and has improved the situation of Europe. • The last increase has been prepared well? Never, in the history of the UE, an increase it had been prepared good like that one of 2004. Thanks to so-called “European agreements”, in 2001 have been created a zone of free exchange for l'83% of the bilateral exchanges, that it has allowed to avoid a crisis trades them in 2004. For being able to join to the UE, a country must have one stable democracy, respect the human rights, to have a competitive market economy and to be in a position to integrally applying the norm of the UE. • And' imminent an other “increase big bang”? An other is not outlined big bang. Bulgaria and Rumania will adhere in 2007, continuations in second time from the Croatia. The other countries of the Balkans and the Turkey have one perspective of adhesion in the long term. The Commission manages process of adhesion, than hard various years and concurs with the countries of is prepared to satisfy the rigorous conditions established from the UE, so that their integration turns out favourable for all. • The process is not undemocratic? The UE would not have to consult the public opinion? All the fundamental decisions come taken from all democratically elect the competent organs in every State member and the Union.
HAS IT WEAKENED TO US? 5. The increase has not paralyzed the operation of the UE? The adhesion of ten new members has not slowed down the decisional process. The institutions of the UE continue to work: the new members of the European Parliament participate actively to its political groups, the Commission Barroso operates in efficient way with 25 commissioners and the decisional process of the Council has maintained the same effectiveness. 6. The increase will not prevent to an ulterior deepening of the UE the history of the UE demonstrates that the widening of the Union is perfectly compatible with its ulterior integration. Thanks to increase of the UE the only market has been developed, has created the Schengen zone inside of which it can be travelled without passport, the euro has been adopted and all has been elaborated the series of other political new. Like that one in matter of inner emergency, strengthening at the same time external politics, field in the last increase it has increased the weight of the UE here on the world-wide scene. The constitutional treaty means to render the UE more efficient and democratic, strengthening the world-wide role. These still object to you valid, would have to be are achieved soon with the completion of the institutional reform. 7. The UE can still absorb other members? It enables of absorption, measured from the possibility for the UE to also continue and to work well receiving new members, is a concept works them, not geographic. Firm remaining the importance of the absorption ability, in the interest of Europe odierna we cannot wait for the future increase in order to improve the operation of the UE. We must improve the operation of the UE puts into effect them so as to to promote economic increase, competitiveness, creation of workplaces and social protection to advantage of our citizens.
Is it too expensive ? 8. The increase has not provoked massive entering of workers in the old states members? The apocalyptic scene that previewed an entering of workers from Europe orients them and centers them did no happen. The Ireland, United Kingdom and Sweden have opened from the beginning (1 May 2004), with bonds turn out to you, you respect occupational markets to you to the workers of Europe it centers them and it orients them. These positive experiences have induced also Finland, the Portugal and Spain to open you respect labour markets to you. Other countries like Belgium and France, have opted for a partial opening. In the 2005 a medium occupational increment of 1% has been recorded, in new and the old States members. The increase favours the legal migration, easier to control, while in many States members the true problem is clandestine immigration, that it mostly comes from the countries thirds party. 9. The increase has not had effects denied to you on our conditions of job, having provoked moreover a social dumping goods in foreign market. The legal possibilities of occupation offered in the old States members from the increase of the 2004 have contributed to reduce the underground economy (and the black market of the job). Beyond risking less than to be he takes advantage of and to look at itself to you to impose unacceptable conditions, the workers lawyers pay the taxes and pour the contributions. The fact that the new members must adopt the norms of the UE in health matter, emergency and other aspects of the working life improves moreover the conditions of job in these countries and contributes to establish a fair competition between the enterprises. Nothing demonstrates that the increase has provoked a social dumping goods in foreign market. Not only, thanks to the new adhesions the social standards harmonize to you are progressively diffusing in all the UE
10. The increase does not have favourite the delocalization of the enterprises. The studies confirm that the delocalization of the enterprises from the old States members to those new ones remains a marginal phenomenon. The main destination of the delocalization, moreover, is not Europe centers them and orients them, but Asia. To invest in Europe centers them and orients them rather than in China or in India it can help guardian the European industry to the occupation and stimulate the increase in all Europe. 11. The increase has not falsed the operation of the home market? The distortions of the home market are the fruit of one devoid transposition and an application from part of the old States and the new members. Opening the market of 75 million consumers to the enterprises of the old States members, the increase has stimulated the competition on the home market, and therefore it has rendered the more competitive European enterprises on the world-wide markets. 12. The increase does not cost too much? The re-unification of Europe has cost the equivalent of a coffee to every citizen of the old States members, a cost partially recovered since the citizens of new States members acquire the greater part of the goodses imported from the old members. The quota the budget of the destined Union to the new members represents only 0.15% of the Gross Domestic Product of the UE. These appropriations serve in great part to upgrade infrastructures, with advantages for the enterprises of the entire UE.
Is it too dangerous? 13. The increase has not provoked an increase of clandestine immigration and the organized crime? The increases the norms of the UE on the judicial cooperation and of police allow us to extend to the new States members and to render the fight against crime and terrorism more effective. An action of the UE in matter of emergency and justice guarantees to the citizen a protection better than how much they cannot make single states. 14. The increase has not put to risk the alimentary emergency and the atmosphere? The alimentary emergency and the health of the animals have been to the center of negotiate you of adhesion. The UE has adopted rigorous measures in order to guarantee the respect of its standards from part of the new members. The not consistent plants of alimentary transformation due year to close before the adhesion, and only those that respected requirement have been authorize to sell they produced to you in all the home market. With passing of the years, the UE has defined standard externally acclimatizes them rigorous in terms of the air and the water, of protection of the marine atmosphere, safeguard of the nature and emergency nuclear, with advantages for all the European citizens. The increase, therefore, increases the emergency acclimatizes them, rather than to diminish it.
ARE THERE TOO MANY MEMBERS? 15. When we will stop ourselves? We would not have to once delimit for all the frontiers of the UE? In compliance with treaty UE, all the European countries that respect the values of the democracy, the human rights and the State of right can ask to become members of the European Union. That does not mean but that all the European countries must ask to join or that the UE must receive all the candidacies. In order to avoid excessive pressures on the ability to absorption of the UE, the Commission Barroso it has consolidated the engagements assumed in the comparisons of the countries for which the increase process is in existence: this regards Turkey, the Croatia and the other countries of the western Balkans. 16. In order which reason Turkey would have to join to the UE? Europe has need of a stable Turkey, democratic and prospers, that it adopts our values, our common state of right, and our political. For being able integrally to enter to make part of the UE, Turkey must satisfy criteria much rigorous. If it will guarantee the respect of the State of right and the human rights in all its territory, Turkey will be able to join to the UE and to strengthen its role of “bridge” between various civilizations. 17. Why we would have to receive a country not Christian? The UE is not one community founded on the religion. The Union is based on common values like the respect of the human dignity, the State of right, the tolerance and not the discrimination. One of our points of force in how much community of values is that we are joined in the diversity. In the UE they live currently approximately 12 million Muslims - many of which like citizens - with to people of many other confessions and not believers. The liberty of cult, the protection of the minorities and the discrimination they do not constitute however fundamental political criteria
Why to admit Turkey and not the Ukraine? The Ukraine and Turkey are found in various stages of their relationships with the UE. The perspectives of adhesion and the European vocation of Turkey are anything but recent, contrarily to the European aspirations of the Ukraine. • Crime and the instability are not too much diffuse in the western Balkans? The western Balkans have made remarkable efforts in order to place aim to the instability created in the years 90' from a decade of wars and inner conflicts. The European perspective of these countries is the way better than to consolidate the regional stability and the emergency in the interest of the European continent. The constant engagement of the UE will help the region to resolve the issues still in suspended like the status of the Kosovo.
WHICH ARE THE EVENTUAL ADVANTAGES? • The increase involves some advantage for the private citizens of the UE? In the first instance, all we have drawn advantage of the stability and the development to which increases have contributed in the years the successes to you. In the second place, increase of the question of consumer goodses in the new members has had positive consequences for the citizens of the old States members, since the enterprises have sold assets, services and know-how on these dynamic markets contributing in such a way to the creation and the maintenance of workplaces in their country. The old exchanges between and new members are quadruplicate to you in the last decade. The old States members record give along time a surplus trade them regarding the new ones, other factor that has contributed to the maintenance of the workplaces. The increase can involve various positive aspects you for the citizen, because it concurs to travel more easily and because it improves the study conditions abroad and in context in which the enterprises operate. The financings of deep the structural UE assign to bridges and freeways in Spain, Portugal, Poland, Estonia and Slovenia, make that the increase turns out favourable.