King Saud University College of Computer and Information Sciences Information Technology Department IT422 - Intelligent systems. Chapter 8. Machine Learning. Introduction. What is learning? Learning in humans consists of (at least): memorization, comprehension, learning from examples.
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“Learning denotes changes in a system that enable the system to do the same task more efficiently next time”. (Hubert Simon, 1983)
Consider an agent training to become a taxi driver
E.g.: spam email, why are dogs, cats and humans mammals, but trout, mackerel and tuna are fish?
E.g., Given examples of financial stocks and a categorization of them into safe and unsafe stocks
Learn how to predict whether a new stock will be safe.
(x1, y1), (x2, y2), … (xN, yN),
where, yj = f(xj), where f is unknown function,
the goal is to find a function h that approximates f.
First, select the hypothesis space: in this case, the set of polynomials.
(a): The line is consistent with the data.
(b): The high-degree polynomial is also consistent with the data.
Ockham’s razor: Choose the simplest hypothesis which is consistent with the data.
The order of the attributes: Q, R,P
The order of the attributes: P, Q, R
Smaller number of nodes The order is important
A decision tree for the function: P (Q R).