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Functional Organization of the Cardiovascular System. Objectives. Describe the functional organization of cardiovascular system List the functions of cardiovascular system. Describe the main function of arteries, capillaries and veins

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Functional Organization of the Cardiovascular System

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  • Describe the functional organization of cardiovascular system
  • List the functions of cardiovascular system.
  • Describe the main function of arteries, capillaries and veins
  • Describe the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart and through the systemic and pulmonary circulations.
  • Compare and contrast the systemic and pulmonary circulation.
functional organization of cardiovascular system








Functional Organization of Cardiovascular system
functions of cardiovascular system
Functions of Cardiovascular System:

I. Primary (main) function of the heart:

♥ Acts as a muscular pump:

in order to maintain adequate level of blood flow

throughout CVS by pumping blood under press into

vascular system.

♥ Responsible for the mass movement of fluid in


functions of cardiovascular system continued
Functions of Cardiovascular System (continued)

II. Secondary functions:

1. Transportation:

 delivers O2 to tissues, & brings back CO2 to lungs.

 carries absorbed digestion products to liver & tissues.

 carries metabolic wastes to kidneys to be excreted.

 distribution of body fluids.

2. Regulation:

 Hormonal: carries hormones to target tissues to produce their effects.

 Immune: carries antibodies, leukocytes (WBCs), cytokines, & complement

to aid body defense mechanism against pathogens.

 Protection: carries platelets, & clotting factors to aid protection of the body

in blood clotting mechanism.

 Temperature: helps in regulation of body temperature, by diverting blood to cool or warm the body.

anatomy of the heart
Anatomy of the heart:
  • Positioned between two bony structures – sternum and vertebrae


  • Hollow, muscular organ.

Vena cava

pulmonary veins




Atrium: weak primer pump for the ventricle

Ventricle: the main pumping force

 

Rt. Ventricle Lt. ventricle

Pulmonary circulation Systemic circulation


systemic circulation

Pulmonary circulation

valves of the heart
Valves of the heart:

♥2 atrioventricular

(AV) valves:

■One way valves.

■Allow blood to flow from

atria into ventricles.

■ Tricuspid (Rt) & Mitral


♥2 semilunar valves:

■One way valves.

■At origin of pulmonary artery

& aorta.

■ Pulmonary (Rt) & Aortic (Lt).

■ Open during ventricular


heart valves
Heart Valves
  • One way flow in heart is ensured by heart valves
  • Valves open & close passively

- open  by forward P by blood

- close by backward P by blood

No valves between atria and veins
    • Reasons
      • Atrial pressures usually are not much higher than venous pressures
      • Sites where venae cavae enter atria are partially compressed during atrial contraction
the fibrous skeleton of the heart
Serves 3 roles:

A mechanical base: atria anchored above and ventricles below

Perforated by 4 apertures, each containing a valve

Insulates the ventricles

The fibrous skeleton of the heart
vascular tree
Vascular Tree
  • Closed system of vessels
  • Consists of
    • Arteries
      • Carry blood away from heart to tissues
    • Arterioles
      • Smaller branches of arteries
    • Capillaries
      • Smaller branches of arterioles
      • Smallest of vessels across which all exchanges are made with surrounding cells
    • Venules
      • Formed when capillaries rejoin
      • Return blood to heart
    • Veins
      • Formed when venules merge
      • Return blood to heart
  • Function:
    • Rapid transit passage-ways for blood from heart to tissues
    • Pressure reservoir

Structure of arterial wall

  • Plentiful of elastic fibers….high compliance
arterioles resistance vessels
Arterioles (resistance vessels)
  • Very small arteries that delivers blood to capillaries
  • Structure
    • Very little elastic tissue but thick layer of smooth muscle
  • Function Regulating blood flow from arteries to capillaries by regulating resistance according to tissue metabolic needs.
  • Microscopic vessels that connects arterioles to venules
  • Structure
    • Single wall layered vessels (endothelial cells)
    • Undergoes extensive branching
    • Maximized surface area and minimized diffusion distance
    • Velocity of blood flow through capillaries is relatively slow
      • Provides adequate exchange time
  • Function:
    • Exchange of nutrients and wastes between blood and tissue cells
capillaries cont
Capillaries cont.
  • Under resting conditions many capillaries are not open
  • Capillaries surrounded by precapillary sphincters
  • Contraction of sphincters reduces blood flowing into capillaries in an organ
  • Relaxation of sphincters has opposite effect
  • Carry blood from tissues to heart
  • Structure:
    • Thin wall
    • Less smooth muscle and considerable amount of collagen
    • Less elastic fibers
  • Function:
    • Passage ways back to heart
    • Blood reservoir (capacitance vessels)