Cultural Diversity • Cultural Diversity • The term refers to different ethnic traditions based on race, language, religion, customs and family practices found in one society or region (Mohammed 2007). • The vast differences in the characteristics and attributes of social groups in the Caribbean stem from the traditions and activities of the different European powers that colonized the region.
Cultural diversity results mainly from historical factors. The plantation system caused the influx of Europeans, Africans, East Indians and Chinese. Each group brought its cultural traits and values to the region. Periods of Arrival: Europeans 1492 – 1600 (Spaniards, French, British, Dutch, Germans) Africans 1517 – 1807, the Slave Trade Indentured labourers 1834 – 1917: Europeans, Portuguese (Madeirans) and Maltese, Free Africans, Chinese, East Indians
Cultural Diversity (cont’d) • Main factors that influence cultural diversity: • Geography • History • Language • Festivals • Race and ethnicity • Religions • Food and culinary traditions • Political systems
Crop Over In Barbados Antigua Carnival Divali Hindu Festival of Lights
Music forms: • Calypso – all islands • Reggae – Jamaica • Punta rock – Belize • Zouk – Martinique, Dominica • Salsa – Cuba • Merinque – Haiti The steelpan – the only musical instrument created in the Caribbean
The political systems of the Caribbean vary from independent countries to colonies. All Caribbean countries are stable democracies that observe the rule of law and governments are changed through the electoral process. • However, colonial relationships persist : many independent countries retain Queen Elizabeth as Head of State. Britain, France, the Netherlands and the United States control the external affairs of some countries e.g. Montserrat, Guadeloupe, St.Maarten, US Virgin Islands, respectively. • Puerto Rico is an Associated State of the United States
Cultural Diversity (cont’d) • Positive Effects of Cultural Diversity: • It encourages cultural retention • It facilitates adapting to and accommodating cultural differences. Living in such societies enables one to reflect on the values and customs of others. One can learn to appreciate other cultures. • Members enjoy a variety of foods, festivals and celebrations, etc. • It enables the development of craft, agricultural industries as well as, the creation of different forms of music, art, literature, etc, which speak to the experiences of more than one ethnic group. • Cultural variations attract tourists
Negative Effects of Cultural diversity: • It may foment discontent in society. This may arise from feelings of ethnic superiority aided by perceptions that one group is getting more out of the ‘national pie’ than one’s own group. • Certain groups (minorities) may experience discrimination and exploitation which may lead to social unrest. • The offspring of mixed unions can experience an identity crisis. • Ethnic politics develops, with political parties’ support divided along racial lines. • Ethnic prejudices are preserved through socialization and this is further reinforced in interaction with friends and relatives.
Hybridization refers to processes of cultural and ethnic mixing to produce a new entity with elements of each of the parent influences (Mohammed, 2007). • Key terms: • Trans-culturation is the process whereby two cultures meet and mix and something with new elements and forms emerge. • Acculturation is the process whereby one culture is absorbed into another. • Creolization is the meeting and mixing of cultures to produce something new out of the fusion. This term tends to be specifically used to refer to Caribbean processes of mixing. • Inter-culturation refers to the cultural mixing that occurs in a plural society where elements of the ethnic groups’ cultures may be incorporated into each other’s way of life though there may be limited interaction between the groups.
Racial and Ethnic hybridization During the period of conquest and slavery new groups of people were created from the sexual unions between Europeans, Amerindians and Africans. Miscegenation was the term used describe such unions. Persons were assigned to social positions of power and status according to the colour of their skin. Persons of mixed race formed another ethnic group within the society: Mestizos – offspring of Amerindians and Europeans Mulattoes - offspring of Africans and Europeans Sambo – offspring of mulattoes and Africans Quadroon – offspring of mulattoes and whites Octoroon – offspring of quadroon and whites Dougla – offspring of East Indians and Africans; Trini-dougla are offspring of Chineses, Africans and E. Indians born in Trinidad. ‘Coloured’ is the more general term since all mixtures do not carry specific names.
A pigmentocracy evolved and it became the norm to describe someone using their colour as a major descriptor. Persons of fairer complexion had more power and prestige in society than others. • Some countries have more ‘coloureds’ than others (Trinidad, St. Lucia, the French Caribbean). Some countries have two major races, black and white producing their coloured populations (Antigua, Barbados, Jamaica); others have many groups (Africans, Europeans, Amerindians, Chinese, East Indians) such that here are many varieties and combinations.
Cultural Hybridization • Syncretism refers to the mixing of cultural practices from different ethnic groups to create a different entity that fused aspects of the original practices e.g. religion, language, culinary arts, etc. Religion: Shango, Voodoo, Kumina, Myal, Rastafarianism are some syncretic religions with Christian traditions and a heavy African input. Christian elements – recognition of the Holy Spirit, use of the Bible, communion ceremony, feast days of saints. African elements - use of drums and other percussion instruments in worship, dancing in worship, spirit possession and falling into trance-like states, wearing of head-ties by female members. Language: Caribbean languages are based on the ‘master’ languages of Europe. They are referred to as creole languages because aspects of the master languages were incorporated into language forms that emerged from experiences during slavery and colonialism. There are in the English- speaking Caribbean: English-based patios and French-based patois. However, there are similarities and variations in each type as spoken between countries.
Culinary Arts/Food Roots • Caribbean culinary arts/food roots reflects its hybridized culture. Amerindian Heritage: • Jamaica’s bammy and Antigua’s bamboola are based on the Amerindians use of cassava The Caribs made ‘pepperpot’ which is still cooked in Guyana and some of the islands. • The Caribs’s custom of cooking over an open fire has led to the word barbeque. Another Amerindian method of cooking, i.e. baking meat or fish in a charcoal pit , was combined with the barbeque to give rise to ‘jerking’ in Jamaica. • Other contributions – the use of dried coconut and corn (grated, boiled, roasted), our love of coconut water; spices such as hot pepper, sweet basil, allspice (pimento in Jamaica).
Spanish Heritage: The Spanish contributed hot chocolate, avocado, marinated or escoveitched fish, gizzada (coconut tart) and their custom of soaking fruits in wine. British Heritage: The use of diary products, Christmas pudding, fruit salads and Sweet bread (bun) are part of the British heritage. The British soldiers and sailors brought breadfruit, blood Pudding (black or rice pudding) or white pudding from which blood is left out and souse.
African Heritage: Though planters imported food from Africa to feed their slaves, the slaves themselves brought many of their foods to include, okra, callaloo (spinach), taro (eddo or coco), their one-pot method of preparing most dishes and traditional cooking utensils including the three-legged iron pot, grater and mortar and pestle. Seasonings such as ‘sive’, or chives, escallion, ginger, nutmeg, pimento, and hot pepper, also came from Africa. Dishes such as, akkra (seasoned black eye peas, pounded and fried), foo-foo (pounded starchy root or fruit), funchi (fungee) and duckunoo (a), (blue drawers in Jamaica, paimee in St. Lucia, konkie in Barbados, St. Kitts and the Virgin Islands), ackee, parched dried corn beaten fine in a mortar and mixed with sugar, known as asham or Brown George in Jamaica, ashum in Antigua. Bush teas and the use of ‘bush’ as remedy for ailments and diseases.
Photos Above Top: Jamaica’s National Dish - Ackee and Saltfish Left: Antigua’s National Dish – Fungee and Saltfish Right: A popular Antiguan Dish – Ducuna and Saltfish
East Indian and Chinese Heritage: The East Indians contributed curry, rice, roti, dahl and pelau. The Chinese also brought heavily spiced food distinguished by being salty, sweet, sour, gingered and hot. They introduced lettuce, cabbage, cucumber and green beans. Foods were mainly quick fried, deep fried or steamed. Roast suckling pig, braised chicken feet and vegetarian foods made mainly of bean products are all part of the Chinese heritage. Emphasis on vegetable cookery was strengthened by the East Indians and Chinese.
Culinary Arts/Food Roots Jewish and Americans Heritage: The Jews: Potato pancakesand cheese cake as well as the heavy use of salt and garlic are Jewish contributions. The Americans: The N. American influences are reflected in various items of pastry and gourmet dishes. Fast foods (hamburger, hot dog etc.) have become staples in Caribbean cuisine.
African Retentions • Oral traditions • Savings organization: (box, susu, partner hand, meeting turn) • Game: warri
One of the clearest link the Caribbean has to Africa is in its oral tradition. The role of the Griot/Jellis who passed down stories and accounts of events of one generation to another survived slavery and the plantation system. This tradition is kept alive in: • Music: calypso, reggae and dancehall • Storytelling • Folktales • Similes and proverbs
The ‘box’ is a form of a cooperative pooling of earnings so that each member may benefit by obtaining in turn and at one time all the money paid in by the entire group on a given time (day, week, month). In Africa the box is most commonly called esusu. It is called nanamei akpee (mutual help) in Ghana; mahodisana or stokfel (pays back to each other) in South Africa; sanduk (putting down) in Sudan. In China the box is called hui.
Warri which means ‘house’ is of the mancala game family and was brought to Antigua from Ghana with the slaves. The game is played with a board into which hollows are carved. The counters are seeds called nickars. Playing warri is said to develop planning, analytical and mathematical skills as well as foster discipline. Antiguan proverb: “If you play warri with God you go get no seed”. Antiguan Movie: “No Seed “
The Processes of Hybridization • Cultural erasure this refers to practices that have died out or are dying out (Mohammed, 2007). • Reasons for cultural erasure include modernization and progress. Modernization refers to the adaptation in the present time to conditions and needs, while progress refers to the advance of something better or higher in development. Cultural erasure stems from a tension between the traditional ways of doing things and the seeming benefits of doing things the modern way. Modern ways are seen to be cost effective and efficient. • Examples of lost cultural traditions: story-telling, wake, sing-round, singing meetings and courtship traditions (in Antigua). • Manifestation of Modernization and Progress: use of refrigeration for food preservation, use of over the counter medicines, change in speech patterns (Americanization), communication technologies. • Implications of modernization for society and culture: increase in lifestyle diseases, increased cost of health care, loss of cultural identity as result of the adoption of foreign cultural practices, e.g. Halloween, Kwanzaa, Thanksgiving, etc. Question. Can a culture be erased?
Processes of Hybridization (cont’d) • Cultural retention refers to practices that have survived even when most other forms and symbols of a culture are no longer evident (Mohammed, 2007). Purposes of cultural retention: to bond society, revitalise cultural norms and values, reinforce a sense of identity. Manifestations of cultural retention: Carib basketry designs and technologies, Garifuna culture in Belize. Traditions that have survived include box (susu, partner hand, meeting turn) family land. Cultural renewal refers to conscious efforts by a group to return to some elements of its culture which it believes have been ignored or suppressed (Mohammed, 2007) . Cultural renewal is likely to result from historical forces of change. Examples of such forces were Garveyism 1930s, and the Black Power movement 1970s.