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Misconceptions About Motivation. 1. Some people just aren’t motivated. 2. Motivation is something you do TO others. 3. A happy worker is a productive worker. Why is motivation important?. Motivation determines effort and effort is one determinant of performance

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slide1

Misconceptions About Motivation

1. Some people just aren’t motivated.

2. Motivation is something you do TO others.

3. A happy worker is a productive worker.

why is motivation important
Why is motivation important?
  • Motivation determines effort and effort is one determinant of performance
  • Motivated workers don’t need constant supervision
  • Motivated workers are more likely to show up
  • Motivated workers can provide a competitive advantage through ideas and customer service
slide3

Content Theories of Motivation

- Help us understand what motivation IS

- Assume behavior to be goal directed

- Needs (unsatisfied) are the source of motivation

- Need = an internal state of deficiency

-Needs Tension Behavior to reduce the tension

by satisfying the need

(Homeostasis)

-At certain times some needs will be more important than

others.

slide4

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Premises:

5 level hierarchy

Self-

Actualization

Need Prepotency

Need Progression

Esteem

Belongingness

Security

Physiological

slide5

Alderfer’s ERG Theory

Premises:

A 3 level hierarchy

Need Progression

Need Regression

Growth

Relatedness

Existence

slide6

Argyris’ Immaturity-Maturity Theory

Immaturity Maturity

Passivity Activity

Dependence Independence

Few ways of behaving Diverse behavior

Shallow interests Deep interests

Short time perspective Long term perspective

Subordinate position Superordinate position

slide7

Causes of Employee Satisfaction

Traditional View

Low Pay High pay

Dissatisfaction Satisfaction

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory

- Hygiene +Hygiene

- Motivators + Motivators

Dissatisfaction Satisfaction

slide8

Herzberg’s Hygiene & Motivator Factors

Hygiene Factors Motivator Factors

Pay Achievement

Working Conditions Recognition

Security Work Itself

Fringe Benefits Responsibility

Company Policies Growth Potential

Interpersonal Relations

Supervision

assessment of herzberg
Assessment of Herzberg

Contributions Criticisms

1st to argue that job content Assumed satisfaction

design was important causes motivation

Advocated job enrichment as Ignored individual

a motivational strategy differences. Not

Easy to understand, intuitively everyone wants an

appealing enriched job

Explained why “more” “Method bound”

hygiene factors won’t increase

motivation

slide10

McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory

Needs Characteristic Preferences

Need for Affiliation Like to work with their friends

Opportunities to communicate

Need for Power Control over others

Attention

Recognition

Personal vs. Institutional

Need for Achievement Like to set own goals

“Challenging” goals

Like immediate feedback

Like individual responsibility

slide11

Critique of Need Satisfaction Models

Need Satisfaction Alternative Model

Job Characteristics

Need Fulfillment Needs

Job Attitudes

Job Behaviors

Job Characteristics

(Objective)

(Imputed/perceived)

Needs

Job Attitudes

Job Behaviors

process choice theories
Process/Choice Theories

They seek to help us understand the processes

behind the choices we make:

  • The decision to expend effort
  • The level of effort to exert
  • How effort can be made to persist over time
slide13

Expectancy Theory

Employee’s Managerial

Perception Definition Question Implications

Valence the perceived value Do I value the Need to identify individual

of a particular rewards offered? needs.

outcome to an individual. Adjust available rewards to

meet those needs.

Instrumentality the perceived probability Can I achieve the Select workers with ability.

that performance will desired level of Train workers to use abilities.

lead to outcomes performance? Support workers with available

resources.

Clarify performance goals.

Expectancy the perceived probability What rewards will Communicate P R possibilities

that effort will lead to I get as a result of Confirm P R possibilities

task performance my performance? by making ACTUAL

rewards contingent on

performance.

slide14

Expectancy Theory Example

Perceived Motivation

Outcomes V I E Force

High Salary 10 .8

IBM Fast Promotions 10 .6

Prestige 10 .5

Freq. Moves -20 .9

Sum V*I 1 .8 .8

High Salary 10 .4

Fed. Fast Promotions 10 .1

Gov. Prestige 10 .3

Freq. Moves -20 .3

Sum V*I 2 1.0 2.0

slide15

Expectancy Theory

Expectancy Theory

Perceptions Reality

E I V

Effort Perf. Rewards Effort Perf. Rewards

slide16

Reasoning Behind Goal Setting

Direction specific goals direct your focus

to relevant activities.

Effort need to devote more intense

levels of effort toward difficult

goals

Persistence specific, difficult goals encourage

you to persist longer at a task than

would be the case with less

difficult or vague goals.

slide17

A Model of Goal Setting

Knowledge of Goal Goal

Results Attributes Aspirations Outcomes

+

Goal Content

Specificity

Difficulty

Goal

Intentions

Performance

Past Performance

Goal Setting Process

Assigned

Participative

goal difficulty controversy
Goal Difficulty Controversy

Goal Setting Theory N Ach Expectancy Theory

P

E

R

F

O

M

A

N

C

E

H H H

M M M

L L L

Easy Medium Hard Easy Medium Hard Easy Medium Hard

Goal Difficulty Goal Difficulty Goal Difficulty

a modified model of goal setting
A Modified Model of Goal Setting

Goal Content

Specificity

Difficulty

Goal Setting Process

Assigned

Participative

Goal

Intentions

Past

Performance

Performance

Individual Differences

Personality (Self efficacy)

Needs (N Ach)

Cognitions (attributions)

Perceptions (expectancies)

slide20

The Role of Incentives

High

Performance

Level

Low

Easy Hard

Perceived Goal Difficulty

Piecerate

bonus

criticisms of goal setting
Criticisms of Goal Setting
  • Difficult to Sustain
  • Works best on simple jobs
  • Encourages Game-Playing
  • Another Control Device
  • Can become an obsession (Means-end reversal)
slide22

Equity Theory Perceptions

1. Perceptions of outcomes received

2. Perceptions of inputs required

3. Perceptions of the outcomes and inputs of a

“Referent” other

O/I

O/I

OI OO

II IO

OI OO OI

II IO II

OO

IO

<

or

=

>

Under Reward Over Reward

Equity

Inequity

slide23

Equity Theory Reactions

Equity Inequity

Motivation to Motivation to reduce

maintain current inequity:

situation

1. Change inputs

2. Change outcomes

3. Alter perceptions of self

4. Alter perceptions of other

5. Change referent other

6. Leave the situation

equity sensitivity
Equity Sensitivity

Entitleds

High

Low

Satisfaction

Equity Sensitives

Benevolents

Under Reward Equity Over Reward

justice perceptions
Justice Perceptions

Distributive Justice

Procedural Justice

Interactive Justice

a perspectives approach to motivation
A Perspectives Approach to Motivation

Motivation Questions

What is it? How does it work?

(Content Theories) (Process Theories)

Maslow’s Hierarchy Expectancy Theory

Alderfer’s ERG Theory Equity Theory

Herzberg’s 2 Factory Theory Goal Setting Theory

McClelland’s Learned Needs

Rational Economic Theory Reinforcement Theory

Scientific Management

Internal

External

Location of

the Prime

Mover

questions approach to motivation theory
Questions Approach to Motivation Theory
  • What energizes behavior?
  • What channels energized behavior?
  • How can one maintain energized behavior?
slide28

An Integrated Model of Motivation

Individual Factors Environmental Factors

Alternative Associated

Actions Outcomes

1. 1.

2. 2.

3. 3.

Etc. Etc.

Needs Tension Energized

Effort

Ability

Role

Perceptions

Selection

of an

alternative

Actual Actual

Performance Rewards

Effort

Equity Perceptions Satisfaction

slide29

Implications of Motivation Theory for Managers

1. Managers can influence employee motivation.

2. Motivation is not the ONLY cause of performance.

3. Some factors managers have control over, others they do not.

4. Managers who fail to discriminate have no power.

5. Managers need to diagnose the cause of low performance

before taking action.

6. Establishing goals to direct behavior is important to any

motivation program.

7. Rewards can be a powerful tool, IF...

typical reasons why workers fail to perform
Typical Reasons Why Workers Fail to Perform

Reason Potential Managerial Problem

  • 1. Doesn’t understand Inability to impart public knowledge
  • directions (poor communicator)
  • Lacks ability Selection, transfer, termination problem
  • Dislikes the work Selection, placement or job design
  • problem
  • Rewards are not viewed Lack of understanding of needs of
  • as rewards workforce; or satisfaction problem
  • No relationship between Lack of discrimination problem
  • work output and rewards
  • Employees are in a Working from the value system of the
  • different career stage than manager rather than from the
  • manager subordinate’s value system