Misconceptions About Motivation. 1. Some people just aren’t motivated. 2. Motivation is something you do TO others. 3. A happy worker is a productive worker. Why is motivation important?. Motivation determines effort and effort is one determinant of performance
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1. Some people just aren’t motivated.
2. Motivation is something you do TO others.
3. A happy worker is a productive worker.
- Help us understand what motivation IS
- Assume behavior to be goal directed
- Needs (unsatisfied) are the source of motivation
- Need = an internal state of deficiency
-Needs Tension Behavior to reduce the tension
by satisfying the need
-At certain times some needs will be more important than
5 level hierarchy
A 3 level hierarchy
Few ways of behaving Diverse behavior
Shallow interests Deep interests
Short time perspective Long term perspective
Subordinate position Superordinate position
Low Pay High pay
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
- Hygiene +Hygiene
- Motivators + Motivators
Hygiene Factors Motivator Factors
Working Conditions Recognition
Security Work Itself
Fringe Benefits Responsibility
Company Policies Growth Potential
1st to argue that job content Assumed satisfaction
design was important causes motivation
Advocated job enrichment as Ignored individual
a motivational strategy differences. Not
Easy to understand, intuitively everyone wants an
appealing enriched job
Explained why “more” “Method bound”
hygiene factors won’t increase
Needs Characteristic Preferences
Need for Affiliation Like to work with their friends
Opportunities to communicate
Need for Power Control over others
Personal vs. Institutional
Need for Achievement Like to set own goals
Like immediate feedback
Like individual responsibility
Need Satisfaction Alternative Model
Need Fulfillment Needs
They seek to help us understand the processes
behind the choices we make:
Perception Definition Question Implications
Valence the perceived value Do I value the Need to identify individual
of a particular rewards offered? needs.
outcome to an individual. Adjust available rewards to
meet those needs.
Instrumentality the perceived probability Can I achieve the Select workers with ability.
that performance will desired level of Train workers to use abilities.
lead to outcomes performance? Support workers with available
Clarify performance goals.
Expectancy the perceived probability What rewards will Communicate P R possibilities
that effort will lead to I get as a result of Confirm P R possibilities
task performance my performance? by making ACTUAL
rewards contingent on
Outcomes V I E Force
High Salary 10 .8
IBM Fast Promotions 10 .6
Prestige 10 .5
Freq. Moves -20 .9
Sum V*I 1 .8 .8
High Salary 10 .4
Fed. Fast Promotions 10 .1
Gov. Prestige 10 .3
Freq. Moves -20 .3
Sum V*I 2 1.0 2.0
E I V
Effort Perf. Rewards Effort Perf. Rewards
Direction specific goals direct your focus
to relevant activities.
Effort need to devote more intense
levels of effort toward difficult
Persistence specific, difficult goals encourage
you to persist longer at a task than
would be the case with less
difficult or vague goals.
Knowledge of Goal Goal
Results Attributes Aspirations Outcomes
Goal Setting Process
Goal Setting Theory N Ach Expectancy Theory
H H H
M M M
L L L
Easy Medium Hard Easy Medium Hard Easy Medium Hard
Goal Difficulty Goal Difficulty Goal Difficulty
Goal Setting Process
Personality (Self efficacy)
Needs (N Ach)
Perceived Goal Difficulty
1. Perceptions of outcomes received
2. Perceptions of inputs required
3. Perceptions of the outcomes and inputs of a
OI OO OI
II IO II
Under Reward Over Reward
Motivation to Motivation to reduce
maintain current inequity:
1. Change inputs
2. Change outcomes
3. Alter perceptions of self
4. Alter perceptions of other
5. Change referent other
6. Leave the situation
Under Reward Equity Over Reward
What is it? How does it work?
(Content Theories) (Process Theories)
Maslow’s Hierarchy Expectancy Theory
Alderfer’s ERG Theory Equity Theory
Herzberg’s 2 Factory Theory Goal Setting Theory
McClelland’s Learned Needs
Rational Economic Theory Reinforcement Theory
Individual Factors Environmental Factors
Needs Tension Energized
Equity Perceptions Satisfaction
1. Managers can influence employee motivation.
2. Motivation is not the ONLY cause of performance.
3. Some factors managers have control over, others they do not.
4. Managers who fail to discriminate have no power.
5. Managers need to diagnose the cause of low performance
before taking action.
6. Establishing goals to direct behavior is important to any
7. Rewards can be a powerful tool, IF...
Reason Potential Managerial Problem