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Chapter 2 The Science of Biology . What is Science?. Science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “ to know. ” . Inquiry. What is inquiry? A- People ask questions about what they observe in nature and actively seek answers. Ex. Houseplants grow toward a light source.

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what is science
What is Science?
  • Science is derived from a Latin verb meaning “to know.”
  • What is inquiry?
  • A- People ask questions about what they observe in nature and actively seek answers.
  • Ex. Houseplants grow toward a light source.
  • If we rotate the plant will its direction of growth still go toward light source?
  • What direction would the plant grow

In the dark?

observation and data
Observation and Data
  • The questions that drive scientific inquiry are based on observations.
  • Observation-
  • Use of senses (vision or hearing) to gather information.
  • Data- Recorded observations.
quantitative vs qualitative data
Quantitative vs Qualitative Data
  • Quantitative:
  • Collecting data with numbers.
  • Ex. Measurements.
  • Qualitative:
  • Writing with descriptions instead of measurements. Pictures and drawings.
  • Ex. Jane Goodall spent decades recording her

observations of chimpanzee behavior in the jungle.

quantitative vs qualitative
Quantitative vsQualitative?
  • 1. The lion woke up at sunrise everyday and cleaned his paws. This lion mated with the females lions.
  • A. Qualitative
quantitative vs qualitative1
Quantitative vsQualitative?
  • 2.
  • There were 7 ant hills in the grass.
  • The alligator grew 1 inch every week.
  • A. Quantitative
  • Inference- A logical conclusion based on observations and prior knowledge.
  • Ex. What can you infer if you hear a doorbell ring?
  • A. When a doorbell rings you infer that someone is at the door.


  • Four place setting
  • No drinking cups
  • Empty plates
  • Infer:
  • Four people
  • Food is somewhere hidden
  • Drinks will be from cans
what can you observe from this graph
What can you observe from this graph?
  • Girls start out taller than boys
  • Boys eventually are taller than girls
2 2 hypothesis the scientific method
2.2 Hypothesis “The Scientific Method”
  • Hypothesis- Is a suggested answer to a well-defined scientific question or an explanation on trial.
  • It’s late at night and you hear thunder and rain. Wind begins to pick up and you see a tree fall. Your power goes out. What do you reach for?
  • A. Flashlight
  • The flash light does not work!
  • What is our observation?
  • Flashlight does not work.
  • What is our question?
  • What’s wrong with the flashlight?
  • What is our hypothesis?
  • The batteries are dead.
  • What is our prediction?
  • If the batteries are dead and we replace them, the flashlight will work.
  • What is our test?
  • Replace the batteries.
designing a controlled experiment
Designing a Controlled Experiment
  • Variable-
  • A condition that can differ within the experiment.
  • Controlled Experiment-
  • An experiment that tests the effect of a single variable.
case study snakes
Case Study Snakes
  • Many poisonous animals are brightly colored with distinctive patterns. There are also mimics.
  • Coral snake (poisonous) Scarlet king snake (Not p)
what is the function of mimicry
What is the function of mimicry?
  • What kind of experiment can you design to find the function of mimicry?


  • Both types of snakes have red, yellow, and black rings.
  • Question?
  • What is the function of the kingsnakes’ mimicry of coral snakes?
  • Hypothesis?
  • Mimicry of coral snakes helps protect the kingsnake from predators.


  • If predators confuse the kingsnakes with coral snakes, then predators should attack fewer ringed snakes than brown artificial snakes.
  • Experiment?
  • Scientists place brown artificial snakes in forest and see how many attack it gets from predators compared to ringed snake.
scientific method gone wrong
Scientific method gone wrong!
  • Observation:
  • Village thinks a woman is a witch.
  • Question:
  • Is she a witch?!


  • “If she weighs the same as a duck, then she’s made of wood, therefor SHE’S A WITCH!”
  • Test:
  • “She’s a witch, burn her!”
2 3 understanding science
2.3 Understanding Science

Are these figures real? What do you need to prove that they are real?

  • Evidence-
  • Consists of a collected body of data from observations and experiments.
  • Theory-
  • A well-tested explanation that makes sense of a great variety of scientific observations.
hypothesis vs theory
Hypothesis vs Theory
  • Hypothesis- “Mimicking poisonous snakes is an adaptation that protects nonpoisonous snakes from predators.”
  • Theory- “Adaptations such as mimicry evolve by natural selection.”
  • Only become theory with extensive supporting research!
  • Models-
  • Are physical, mental, or mathematical representations of how people understand of process an idea.

Ex. Drawings, graphs, 3 dimensional objects, computer program.

science technology and society
Science, Technology, and Society
  • Technology-
  • Apply scientific understanding for some specific purpose.
  • Microscope?
  • Observe microorganisms
  • Stem cell research?
  • Prevent heritable disease