Chapter 1 : The Science of Biology Biology – study of life Organism – complete living thing
I.Scientific Method – an orderly, logical series of steps used to solve a problem Steps : 1.Observation –use of senses to detect a problem 2.Hypothesis – educated guess as to the problem 3.Experiment – testing a hypothesis a. controlled experiment- tests only 1 variable. b. variable – thing being tested. Independent and dependent (dep. relies on ind.)
c. data – information from experimenting false true -qualitative – description discard-quantitative – numbers 4. retest 5. theory – proven hypothesis 6. retest 7. scientific law – 100% true Scientist– anyone who uses the scientific method
II. Themes of Biology • 1. Evolution – species changing over time - adaptations – change in an organism that allows it to live in its environ- ment better. Ex. Giraffe - phylogeny – evolutionary history of an organism - homeostatis – the balance between an organism and its environment.
2. Reproduction and Inheritance -- DNA – chemicals that make up genes. -- Asexual reproduction – offspring and parent are the same. -- Sexual reproduction – offspring and parent are different. 3. Development – growing process. 4. Structure and Function
5. Energy relationships – used for life processes. --- autotrophs – organisms that make their own food. Ex. Plants --- heterotrophs – organisms that get energy from other organisms. 6. Ecology – study of organisms in their environment. 7. Science and Society - Ethics – study of right and wrong and our moral choices - Bioethics – ethics dealing with biological issues.
II. Characteristics of Life • Made up of cells (basic unit of life) • Have organization – structure to their makeup. cells tissue organ organ systems organisms 3. Energy – used for growth and maintenance 4. Respond to Environment - stimulus – condition that causes response. - response – reaction to stimulus. -- homeostasis – maintaining a balance
5. Growth – growth from inside out. 6. Reproduction – like make like. 7. Have a life span. Avg. 78,83 a. beginning – birth b. growth – make more cells than die. c. maturity – make 1 cell for each that dies d. decline – more cells die than can be replaced. e. death – all body processes stop.
III. Metric System ton(t) up table move decimal to left - down table move decimal right - Kilo (k) 1) 16.8 dg = _____________ hg Hecto (h) 2) .0062 dal = _____________cl Deca (da) 3) 484 g = _______________ kg m, l, g 4) 5000m = ______________ mm Deci (d) 5) .2 t = ________________ hg Centi (c) 6) 40dg + 2.5 hg + .0003 t = Milli (m) _________________ hg.
8. Made up of essential elements C – carbon H - hydrogen O - oxygen P - phosphorous K - potassium I - iodine N - nitrogen S – sulfur C - calcium a F - iron e
II. Microscopes • Anton von Leeweenhook – made 1st microscope in late 1600’s. • Compound light microscope - uses 2 lenses and light - can view living things easily - doesn’t magnify as high – 1,000x max - total magnification = eyepiece (10x) x objective
2. Electron Microscope – uses electons and magnets. Can’t view living things very easily • Transmission electron microscope (TEM) - 2-D - magnifies up to 200,000 x • Scanning electron microscope (SEM) - 3-D -magnifies up to 100,000 x c. Scanning Tunneling microscope (STM) - only see surface - can view living things - very expensive - magnifies up to 1,000,000x
Magnification – how large an image is.* Resolution – how clear magnification resolution III. Science and Society 1. Ethics – study of right and wrong and our moral choices. 2. Bioethics – ethics of biological issues.
VII. Lab Techniques • 1. Cell Culture – gaining an identical population of cells. • 2. Fractionation – releases parts of cells • 3 Centrifugation – separates cell parts by spinning • 4. Chromatography – separates chemicals by passing up a column of paper. • 5. Electrophoresis – separates pieces of large molecules (DNA) by their electrical charge.