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High Energy Physics FY 2007 OMB Presentation. Dr. Robin Staffin, Associate Director Office of High Energy Physics Office of Science September 26, 2005. High Energy Physics. Answering the most basic questions of our quantum universe

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high energy physics fy 2007 omb presentation

High Energy PhysicsFY 2007 OMB Presentation

Dr. Robin Staffin, Associate Director

Office of High Energy Physics

Office of Science

September 26, 2005

high energy physics
High Energy Physics
  • Answering the most basic questions of our quantum universe
  • What IS the universe? Standing at the door of the third revolution.
      • First revolution: discovery of the atom on
        • Chemistry, electronics, biology, medicine, communications, and materials ...
      • Second revolution: understanding the nucleus on
        • The stars, sun’s energy, nuclear energy, nuclear weaponry, and medical diagnostics & treatment
      • Third revolution: the fundamental basis for matter, energy, space and time. (Trillions of electron volts)
  • Provides answers to how the universe came to be and how it will evolve. A telescope that views the very beginning of the universe and shows how it evolved to the present.
particle physics science and society
Particle Physics, Science and Society
  • Big science
    • International visibility, prestige, Nobels,
    • Huge international collaborations
    • Workforce well-prepared for industry and technical careers
      • About 80% of HEP PhDs end up in industry or government (present company included)
  • Enabling science
    • Accelerators: HEP accelerator and detector technology enables many other scientific disciplines and medical applications
    • High Speed Networking and the Grid
  • A field which is combined with practical usefulness and intellectual excitement
outline content of briefing
Outline (content?) of Briefing
  • Compelling Science Objectives
  • Emabling Science and Technology for Society
  • Training the Technological Workforce
  • Budget Impact
a critical time for hep
A Critical Time for HEP
  • In the course of the next decade, we may discover a very different universe
  • The field of High Energy Physics is poised on the threshold of discovery.
  • HEP can address the important questions:
    • What is the path to unification (“Einstein’s Dream”)?
    • What is the origin of mass?
    • Are there new dimensions of space & time?
    • What can neutrinos tell us?
    • Why more matter than antimatter?
    • What is Dark Matter?
    • What is Dark Energy (acceleration of the universe)?
who will miss this science
Who will miss this science?

“To remain near the top, we must continue to look at new discoveries and new information.” – Speaker of the House, Rep. Dennis Hastert (R-IL)

“We can continue down the current path, as other nations continue to narrow the gap, or we can take bold, dramatic steps to ensure U.S. economic leadership in the 21st century and a rising standard of living for all Americans.”

– Rep. Frank Wolf (R-VA)

“…[the U.S. is] unilaterally disarming in high-energy physics at a time which may well be one of the most exciting periods of physics research in history.”

– Newt Gingrich, former Speaker of the House

“It looks as though the innovation pipeline is slowly being squeezed dry.... [We] are losing the skills race…[and] are beginning to lose our preeminence in discovery as well.” – William Brody, President, Johns Hopkins

top 5 hep results in fy2005
Top 5 HEP Results in FY2005
  • Excellent Tevatron Run II Performance
    • Factor of 2 increase in peak & integrated luminosity since FY04
    • Closing in on the SM Higgs
  • NuMI starts up: the era of precision neutrino physics begins
    • Smooth turn on and steady operation
  • Babar/Belle results show potential surprise
  • CDMS II data rules out light SUSY particles as dark matter candidates
  • QCD comes of age
    • Nobel for Gross, Politzer and Wilczek
    • Lattice QCD now a predictive science
hep fy2005 news below the fold
HEP FY2005 news “below the fold”
  • SDSS observes acoustic vibrations of matter in the early universe
  • Initial results from (partially completed) Auger on ultra-high energy cosmic rays
  • Advances in future accelerator concepts
    • First photonic bandgap accelerator structure
    • Beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment achieves gradient of 45 GV/meter over 30 cm
    • Laser-driven plasma wakefield achieves similar gradients over few mm with excellent beam quality
      • Handheld 5 GeV accelerators for a variety of applications?
      • Multi-TeV accelerators in the future?
accelerator r d program in ohep
Accelerator R&D Program in OHEP
  • Purpose: Provide the scientific and technology base for the highly specialized accelerators which are essential to a forefront high energy physics research program
    • Provide the key developments for advances in structural biology, materials science, nuclear physics and medical applications
  • Strategy: Support a broad program of accelerator technology R&D addressing needs for
    • short-term: improvements for existing specific facilities (Tevatron, B-factory)
    • mid-term: generic R&D for a class of possible facilities or applications (superconducting magnet, superconducting rf, electron-position collider, hadron collider etc)
    • long-term (advanced accelerator R&D): advancing fundamental science and technology of accelerator concept and technology independent of application (plasma & laser acceleration, wakefield acceleration

which brings connections between present program and future applications.

Mid-term and Long-term R&D programs in OHEP are unique

office of science funding for accelerator r d
Office of Science Funding for Accelerator R&D

From a recent SC- Survey

(69%)

(17%)

(12%)

(2%)

new medium initiatives
New Medium Initiatives
  • A number of requests for approval of CD-0 “Statement of Mission Need” were prepared and submitted:
    • A generic Reactor-based Neutrino Detector (RND) to measure 13
    • A generic off-axis (EvA) accelerator-based neutrino experiment for 13 and to probe the neutrino mass hierarchy
    • A generic neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment (DBDE) to probe the Majorana nature and an absolute mass scale of neutrinos
    • A high intensity neutrino beam (Super Neutrino Beam: SNB) for neutrino CP-violation experiments
    • A generic ground-based dark energy (DES or LSST) experiment
    • A generic underground experiment to search for direct evidence of dark matter
  • In order to be ready to move forward expeditiously, this process has been moving in parallel with a Scientific Advisory Group (SAG) and P5 process.

Note: JDEM, ILC are considered to be above “medium-scale.”

hep major program thrusts target
HEP Major Program Thrusts -- Target

LHC

LHC

LHC

ILC

Tevatron

DES

LHC

ILC

Future DME

CDMS, AXION

Blue = In operationOrange = ApprovedPurple = Proposed

hep major program thrusts target1
HEP Major Program Thrusts -- Target

LHC

LHC

DBDE

MiniBooNE

MINOS

EvA

Super nBeam

reactor

LHC

Tevatron/B-factory

LHC

Super nBeam

B-factory

Blue = In operationOrange = ApprovedPurple = Proposed

hep major program thrusts over target
HEP Major Program Thrusts -- Over Target

LHC

LHC

ILC

ILC

ILC

ILC

ILC

LHC

ILC

ILC

ILC

Tevatron

JDEM, LSST

DES

ILC

LHC

ILC

ILC

Future DME

CDMS, AXION

Blue = In operationOrange = ApprovedPurple = Proposed

hep major program thrusts over target1
HEP Major Program Thrusts-- Over Target

LHC

DBDE

MiniBooNE

MINOS

EvA

Super nBeam

reactor

LHC

LHC

Tevatron/B-factory

LHC

Super nBeam

B-factory

Blue = In operationOrange = ApprovedPurple = Proposed

advisory process working together with nsf
Advisory Process- working together with NSF
  • Many of the new initiatives involve other agencies: existing advisory panels are not always adequately configured.

A hierarchy of questions to be addressed:

  • Overall shape of field – “grand strategy”
    • National Academies study (EPP2010), HEPAP…
  • What priority to give to medium scale area X vs. area Y? – “strategy”
    • Re-establish the P5 panel
  • What is the best project in area X? – “tactics”
    • Scientific Advisory Group (SAG)
    • Anticipate several of these with different reporting lines to cover the various areas
advisory committee flow chart
Advisory Committee Flow Chart

Tactics  Strategy Agencies

DOE-NP

NSF

DOE-HEP

Other agencies

EPP

2010

HEPAP

NSAC

Other panels

P5

future

NuSAG

Other SAG’s

planning for the future assumptions with recent budget trend
Planning for the Future- assumptions with recent budget trend
  • Current U.S. accelerator-based program is world-leading, but finite in lifetime
    • Termination of B-factory followed by Tevatron
    • MINOS will ramp down toward the end of the decade also
  • LHC participation will be a central piece of the program
  • The Linear Collider is our highest priority for a future major facility,
    • but timescale is uncertain and cannot be done without either an increase in resources or a reduction in cost
    • Agreements on international partnerships also have to be arranged

Hence

We are planning for a portfolio of medium scale, medium term experiments to start construction in the period 2007-10

  • Scientific opportunities are compelling
    • neutrino physics (APS study); dark matter, dark energy…
  • Resources will become available, through redirection
hep future scenario at target
HEP Future Scenario at Target

Target Scenario: After ~2010, LHC is the only operating high-energy physics accelerator in the world + non-accelerator experiments (neutrinos, dark energy, dark matter)

  • Early termination of Run II and B-Factory
  • A new Neutrino program (EvA) after completion of MINOS
  • Slow construction of super neutrino beam facility
  • LC still in R&D phase (resource limited)
  • LHC addressing questions of unification, origin of mass, extra dimensions, and dark matter.But marginal coverage of dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry
  • Discovery at LHC of new physics is almost guaranteed.
  • Workforce issues:
    • Need to be reduced by ~25%
    • Without major new or upgraded facilities on the horizon, US HEP program activities would most likely move overseas or out of field, resulting in weakening of the domestic program
    • The U.S. will lose leadership in high-energy accelerator technology
the big issues in the target
The Big Issues in the Target

Future of HEP facilities

  • B-Factory ops (total investment ~$0.8B) end after FY06
    • Loss ~ a factor of two in data (vs over target)
    • Cede CP violation physics to Japan.
    • Large number (~300) of RIFs, bumpy transition to LCLS
  • Tevatron ops (total investment ~$1.5B) end after FY08
    • Lose ~30-50% of data, possible indications of new physics before LHC
    • Large number (~300) of RIFs inevitable
  • No domestic HEP facilities from 2008 until (perhaps) super neutrino beam (2015). US as a user, not a leader.
  • ILC on slow track: construction start 2015(?), producing physics data 15 years after LHC turn-on. May lose to Europe or to Japan, who will question if they need the US.
meaning of fy07 12 target budget for hep
Meaning of FY07-12 Target Budget for HEP
  • International reaction will be swift and strong.
    • Following BTeV, RSVP, and AMS
    • Weakening our bargaining role at CERN
    • Major impact on any international collaboration involving the US
    • “Why should we believe the US when it says it wants to pursue the ILC?”
    • Undercuts continuation of Run 2 and other near term programs
      • Eg. EvA and the UK

The end of an era

  • US leadership role in the future of HEP -- one that it has led over the last half-century -- will essentially come to an end.
    • The outsourcing of US HEP (“Exit America”)
  • FY2007 will be a watershed year
hep dashboard 2007
HEP Dashboard 2007

Green = Healthy, Light Green = Issues,Yellow = Serious Issues,Red = Terminated

hep dashboard 2011
HEP Dashboard 2011

Green = Healthy, Light Green = Issues,Yellow = Serious Issues,Red = Terminated

hep future scenario at over target
HEP Future Scenario at Over Target

Over Target Scenario: After ~2010, LHC is still the only operating high-energy physics accelerator in the world

  • Run II and B-Factory programs are complete as planned
  • Super Neutrino Beam will provide a world leadership for US in neutrinos
    • Neutrino program evolving after MINOS by utilizing super neutrino beam facility which is based on LC technology
  • JDEM is poised to probe the secrets of Dark Energy
  • Linear Collider will be ready to exploit LHC discoveries by later part of decade
    • LC in technically-limited R&D phase until 2009, then engineering design
  • LHC addressing questions of unification, origin of mass, extra dimensions, and dark matter.And LC will address this and more (see next slide).
  • Research program strengthened to enhance U.S. impact on LHC
  • Lattice QCD and SciDAC efforts exploit opportunities for U.S. to lead in targeted areas of computation and simulation

This is an exciting and highly productive scientific program.

ilc lhc synergy
ILC & LHC Synergy
  • The high energy of the LHC will establish that new phenomena at the Terascale exist. The precision studies of the ILC will enable us to interpret these new discoveries.
  • In every scenario, the LHC discoveries require the ILC to illuminate their meaning.
  • The results from the LHC and ILC give a multiplicative (not additive) impact on understanding the new Terascale phenomena. Together, they provide a telescope that peers back to the time when the universe was formed.
world leading neutrino physics program
World leading neutrino physics program

A variety of near and mid term initiatives in a different scales can put the US as the world leader of neutrino physics program

  • Electron Neutrino Appearance Experiment (EvA):
    • MINOS follow-on experiment utilizing NuMI beam from Fermilab to Northern Minnesota (maximum use of existing investment)
    • Could obtain world best measurements on mixing angle and mass hierarchy
  • Reactor Neutrino Detector (RND)
    • Independent measurement on mixing angle
    • Options from $15M~$80M (off-shore vs on-shore)
  • Double Beta Decay Experiment (DBDE)
    • Measure absolute mass scale of neutrinos
    • Options from $10M~$200M (off-shore vs on-shore)
  • Super Neutrino Beam (SNB)
    • Study CP violation in neutrino sector
    • Synergetic relationship with ILC R&D technology

Many as Jointly Supported Program with NSF and DOE-NP

exciting dark energy dark matter
Exciting Dark Energy & Dark Matter

A variety of near and mid term initiatives in a different scales can put the US as the world leader of dark energy and dark matter physics program

  • Dark Energy Survey (DES):
    • Ground based dark energy experiment
    • Fabricate new camera for an existing telescope (~$20M)
  • Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)
    • Ground based dark energy experiment as a next generation of DES
    • New telescope, new camera (~$200M)
  • Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)
    • Space based joint mission with NASA for a dedicated dark energy survey
    • DOE funds instrumentation ($300~500M)
  • Dark Matter Search
    • Detector to search for direct evidence of dark matter

Many as Jointly Supported Program with NSF and NASA

summary
Summary
  • International partnerships
    • Premature end of B-factory, Tevatron programs will set off a crisis for US standing (after cancellation of BTeV and RSVP) as a “good partner” for int’l HEP projects
    • Increases difficulty of getting foreign contributions for neutrino and dark energy initiatives, ILC R&D,…
    • Builds on existing uncertainty in the aftermath of US recent US terminations.
fy 2007 omb budget b a in millions
FY 2007 OMB Budget(B/A in Millions)

*Includes $18.2M for SBIR/STTR in FY 2006 and $17.0M for SBIR/STTR in FY 2007 Target, $20.0M Over Target.

fy 2007 budget major items of equipment b a in millions
FY 2007 BudgetMajor Items of Equipment (B/A in Millions)

1The total US contribution (TPC) for this project is $163,750,000, including $60,800,000 from NSF.

2The total US contribution (TPC) for this project is $167,250,000, including $20,200,000 from NSF.

3The total TEC/TPC includes DOE scope only and reflects a rebaselining approved March 2005.

4The total TPC for this project is $18,143,000 including $3,068,000 from NSF and $4,356,000 from foreign partners.

5The total TPC for this project is $17,534,000 including $7,333,000 from NSF, $2,000,000 from the Smithsonian Institution, and $802,000 from foreign partners.

6The Over Target level supports a major role in a domestic experimental facility for a reactor based neutrino experiment, with a preliminary estimated TEC/TPC of $75,000,000

7At the Target, HEP and NP jointly support an initiative in neutrino-less double beta decay physics starting in FY 2008 with a combined preliminary estimated TEC/TPC of $63,000,000; the HEP TEC contribution is $5,000,000. At the Over Target, HEP pursues an independent competitive alternative technology double beta decay project starting in FY 2007 with a preliminary estimated TEC/TPC of $75,000,000.

high energy physics outyear funding profile b a in millions
High Energy PhysicsOutyear Funding Profile (B/A in Millions)
  • Note: New Initiative category covers R&D’s specific for Neutrino and Dark Energy facilities
high energy physics outyear funding profile
High Energy PhysicsOutyear Funding Profile

Over Target Profile

Target Profile

slide43

Facility What it was Built to do What it is remembered for

Example:

Christopher Columbus route to India discovery of America

AGS at BNL N interactions 2 kinds of , CP violation, J/

SLAC nucleon form factors quarks in the proton

Fermilab

fixed target neutrino physics b-quark

collider W and Z top quark

CERN collider W and Z W and Z

PETRA at DESY top quark gluon jets

LEP/SLC electroweak physics electroweak physics

SuperK proton decay neutrino oscillation

SNO neutrino oscillation neutrino oscillation

Supernova decelerating universe accelerating universe

surveys (dark energy)

LHC Higgs ?

All had a solid justification in “bread-and-butter” physics – but history shows thatunexpected discoveriesare common and can open up entirely new directions

state of the field
State of the field
  • The Standard Model is still standing – just
  • Clear frontiers of research have appeared – we know surprises await
    • At the energy frontier (the TeV scale)
    • In dark matter and dark energy
    • In neutrino physics
aps neutrino study recommended
APS neutrino study recommended

Now

Next decade

Upgrade beamline

And/Or

New detector(s)

And/Or

Muon storage ring as neutrino factory

New Reactor experiment

Measure 13

Decision pointhow big is 13?

New Accelerator experiment “off axis”

Measure 13 and mass pattern

CP violation?

New Double beta decayexperiment

Probe mass and Majorana nature

neutrino surprises
Neutrino surprises
  • Unlike quarks – there is a lot of mixing
  • Masses tiny – not from Higgs? From GUT scale physics?
  • Overall mass scale is unknown
  • Hierarchy unknown (2+1 or 1+2)
  • Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?

 Or 

tevatron key is luminosity
Tevatron: key is luminosity

Run II

projections

L (fb-1)

W boson mass (GeV)

Standard

Model

Top quark mass (GeV)

Closing in on the the SM Higgs

other windows to new physics
Other Windows to New Physics

Observation of Bs mixing

  • Discovery Potential over most of Bs mixing expected region
  • SUSY Chargino Sensitivity to 270 GeV!
present neutrino program
Present Neutrino Program
  • MINOS program is just starting:
  • 2 GeV neutrinos
  • 5.4 Kiloton far detector at Soudan
  • 1 Kiloton near detector at FNAL
  • Most precise measurements for neutrino oscillation
  • nm disappearance

Minos Far detector

NEED TO ADD NUMI PROTON

INTENSITY PLOT

Minos near detector

b factory promise
B factory promise

New physics in loops?

SUSY contribution with new phases

Charmonium

s-Penguins

3.7s between CP violation in s-penguin vs sin2b (cc)

lattice qcd results with tflop computers
Lattice QCD Results with TFlop computers

Lattice QCD calculations now consistent, accurate at ~1-2% level

 Are making useful predictions

advisory process scale of program
Advisory Process - Scale of Program
  • One can go through a straw-man exercise to see if a reasonable subset of these initiatives could be worked into a realistic portfolio
  • Make reasonable assumptions about
    • Tevatron and B-factory operations roll-off
    • ILC R&D ramp-up
    • US LHC
  • Bottom line is that O($50-100M) per year may be available to invest in new initiatives by the end of the decade

Complications:

  • Any $ envelope will depend strongly on facility operations and LC R&D funding in the out-years
  • Not all projects are equal in science or scope, even within a given physics area

 Are developing a set of criteria to evaluate projects

advisory process suggested criteria
Advisory Process - Suggested Criteria
  • Scientific Potential : to what extent does the project have the ability to change our fundamental view of the universe?
  • Relevance: is the science important to DOE/HEP’s mission?
  • Value: does the level of scientific potential match the level of investment?
  • Alternatives: are there more cost-effective alternatives to get at the same (or most of the same) physics?
  • Timeliness: will the results come at the right time to have sufficient impact?
  • International: are similar efforts underway in other countries? Are there potential international partners for this effort?
  • Infrastructure: Does the project exploit, or help to evolve, existing infrastucture (including human capital)
national academies panel epp2010
National Academies Panel EPP2010
  • A new “decadal survey”
  • Lay out the grand questions that are driving our field
  • Describe the opportunities that are ripe for discovery
  • Identify the tools that are necessary to achieve the scientific goals
  • Articulate the connections to other sciences and to society
  • Foster emerging worldwide collaboration
  • Recommend a 15 year implementation plan with realistic, ordered priorities
  • Not a typical high energy physics advisory panel. It includes
    • Leaders (non-physicists) in industry, government and academe
      • Strengthen connections with society
      • Sharpen the physics questions
    • Non-particle physicists
      • Engage other scientific communities
    • International participants
      • Place US HEP in the international setting

www.nationalacademies.org/bpa/epp2010.html

the role of p5
The Role of P5

Recently re-constituted for 2 years

  • To develop and maintain the roadmap of the field
  • To address relative priorities of (medium-sized) proposed projects within the program context

(Ideally) P5 would be asked to compare the recommended options from the SAG process and prioritize relative to one another

(More realistically) P5 will be given a nominal (optimistic but not “blue sky”) envelope of available funding for new initiatives and asked to prioritize within that constraint

nusag
NuSAG
  • Part of a new advisory process
    • SAG’s to select “best in class”
    • P5 to balance/prioritize areas
  • A Neutrino Scientific Advisory Group (NuSAG) initiated in March
    • Asked to address
      • Choice of Reactor neutrino experiment
      • Choice of Off-axis neutrino experiment
      • Choice of neutrinoless double beta decay experiment
    • Also will be asked for recommendation on high intensity neutrino beam(s).
  • NuSAG is a joint subpanel of HEPAP and NSAC
    • Reports through HEPAP to DOE-HEP and NSF;
    • through NSAC to DOE-NP and NSF

We are considering how to set up an analogous SAG process for other scientific topics such as dark matter, dark energy and particle astrophysics.

review of accelerator r d program
Review of Accelerator R&D Program

Initiated a comprehensive review of all aspect of the accelerator R&D programs supported by DOE-HEP and NSF-EPP

Specific Charge

  • National Goals: Describe the needs and goals required for a rich and productive future program in accelerator based particle physics
  • Scope: Description of current program
  • Quality:
    • Appraisal of scientific and technical quality of work being supported
    • How US effort rates relative to worldwide effort
  • Relevance:
    • How well the work being supported matches the needs and goals of HEP program
    • Missing items? Over-emphasized or under supported areas?
  • Resources:
    • Does the program have adequate resources to carry out the scope?
    • Does the program make most efficient use of available resources?
  • Management:
    • How well program is managed both in the field and in the agencies
    • Setting goals, priorities, resource allocations, program balance & reporting
  • Training: Is Training of future accelerator work force adequately addressed?
accelerator r d program in ohep1
Accelerator R&D Program in OHEP
  • Purpose: Provide the scientific and technology base for the highly specialized accelerators which are essential to a forefront high energy physics research program
  • Strategy: Support a broad program of accelerator technology R&D addressing needs for
    • short-term: improvements for existing specific facilities (Tevatron, B-factory)
    • mid-term: generic R&D for a class of possible facilities or applications (super-conducting magnet, super-conducting rf, electron-position collider, hadron collider etc)
    • long-term (advanced accelerator R&D): advancing fundamental science and technology of accelerator concept and technology independent of application (plasma & laser acceleration, wakefield acceleration

which brings connections between present program and future concepts.

  • In OHEP budget structure, these are roughly divided into

Short and Mid term = Accelerator Development

Long term = Accelerator Science

accelerator r d program1
Accelerator R&D Program
  • Strong Integration of National Labs, Universities, and Industry
  • Supports Unique & Dedicated Research Facilities
    • Advanced Wakefield Accelerator at ANL
    • Accelerator Test Facility at BNL
    • Photo-injector Laboratory (FNPL) at FNAL
    • L’OASIS at LBNL
    • NLCTA at SLAC
    • Neptune Laboratory at UCLA
    • Proposed SABER & ORION at SLAC
  • Support for Cultivation of Next Generation Accelerator Physicists
    • HEP Accelerator R&D program supported production of over 230 Ph.D since 1982
    • US Particle Accelerator School: started in 1982, office located at FNAL: Two week intensive program being offered twice a year. Accepted as being equivalent to graduate schedule program credit (2~3 credit course)
    • Sponsoring major Conferences and Workshops
current r d topics
Current R&D Topics
  • New accelerator concepts: 13 institutions (16 groups) including 4 national labs (ANL, BNL, LBNL, SLAC)
    • Laser acceleration: 6 groups
    • Plasma acceleration: 9 groups
    • Wakefield acceleration: 2 groups
  • Super Conducting Magnet Technology & Materials Development: 8 institutions including 3 national labs (BNL, FNAL, LBNL)
  • High Powered RF Sources & Accelerating Structures (ex: SC rf cavity): program at 9 institutions including 4 national labs (ANL, BNL, FNAL, SLAC)
  • Code Development: 5 institutions including 2 labs (LANL, LBNL)
  • Theory: 14 institutions including 1 national lab (LBNL)
  • Accelerator Experiments: 3 institutions including 1 national lab (SLAC)
  • Special Facilities: Unique and Dedicated Research Facilities (list in previous slide)
slide66

OHEP Accelerator R&D Funding History

  • Over the last decade, funding for accelerator R&D has decreased by almost 30% if adjusted for cost-of-living factor (3.5~4% per year)
  • A number of visible impacts
    • Termination of muon collider R&D program
    • Termination of a number of university groups & grants
    • Downsize of SC magnet groups at BNL, FNAL and LBNL
    • ORION & SABER proposals put on hold for the last few years
    • Delay upgrade and under utilization of existing Special Facilities (AWA, ATF, FNPL, L’OASIS)
accelerator r d in other parts of the world
Accelerator R&D in Other Parts of the World
  • Hard to account for the total size of the efforts and resources
  • Europe: 16 major Advanced Accelerator Facilities
  • Japan: 16 Advanced Accelerator Facilities
  • Also advanced accelerator research labs at Taiwan, Korea, India, China, Israel
partnering with others experiments
Partnering with others (experiments)

Total number of collaborators

impacts of fy07 hep target what s out
Impacts of FY07 HEP Target: “What’s Out”

Operations of SLAC B-factory terminated at the beginning of FY 2007

  • Only costs are for linac maintenance, physics analysis support and PEP-II D&D. Assumes BES contribution of $40M for linac ops.
  • Detector and accelerator upgrades planned for installation in FY 2006 will be abandoned.
  • Cede to Japan all future B-factory discoveries and the scientific prestige that follows, after an ~$0.8B investment in construction and operations over a decade
  • Estimate ~300 FTE RIFs in FY07, some of which will be picked up by the BES program to support LCLS construction and operations.
  • Total PEP-II luminosity will be ~500 fb-1 (compare to ~900 fb-1 in Over Target)
impacts of fy07 hep target significant reductions
Impacts of FY07 HEP Target: Significant Reductions

Research Program Significantly Reduced

  • Overall core research and technology R&D activities in the HEP program will be reduced by ~$19M in FY 2007 to meet overall budget constraints.
  • Reductions in these areas will be partially offset (at the ~30-40% level) by ramp-up of new initiatives
  • Rapid ramp-down of B-factory research and major program realignment will begin.
    • 40 universities, 3 DOE labs (LBNL, LLNL and SLAC) and ~300 foreign researchers currently participate in this program
  • Estimate an elimination of ~100 university research FTEs and ~70 laboratory research FTEs in FY 2007, not including potential offsets from new initiatives
impacts of fy07 hep target what s in
Impacts of FY07 HEP Target: “What’s In”

Facility Operations

  • Tevatron Collider and NuMI: Both the Tevatron Collider and the NuMI beam line will continue to run a technically-limited schedule in FY 2007.
    • Maintains U.S. leadership in energy frontier research and accelerator-based neutrino physics.
    • Overall effort reduced due to completion of Run II upgrades and operations-related R&D
impacts of fy07 hep target what s in1
Impacts of FY07 HEP Target: “What’s In”

Research

  • LHC: Support final installation, commissioning, and initial operations of the U.S.-supplied components of the LHC.
    • Facilitate remote participation by U.S. physicists in the start-up activities of the LHC
    • Support the software and computing infrastructure needed to provide U.S. scientists rapid and easy access to LHC data.
    • Note that the success of this program relies on ASCR providing an upgraded ESNet to access enormous LHC datasets. This upgrade is not funded in the ASCR Target.
  • ILC R&D: Pre-conceptual design of Linear Collider systems.
    • A reference design and preliminary cost is to be competed by the end of 2006, and this will identify key areas for aggressive R&D to reduce costs and/or improve operational reliability.
impacts of fy07 hep target what s in2
Impacts of FY07 HEP Target: “What’s In”

New Initiatives

  • SNAP R&D: Develop new space-based experimental tools to study the mysterious dark energy
    • The SNAP R&D effort will be terminated in FY2007 in the absence of additional resources in the outyears and an interagency agreement on how to proceed. (does this belong here???)
  • Neutrinos: The R&D effort begun in FY2006 to develop new accelerator and detector technologies to enhance future neutrino physics program will continue, including:
    • Dedicated electron neutrino appearance exp’t w/ NuMI beam
    • Reactor-based experiment to precisely measure nu mixing
    • Neutrinoless double-beta decay exp’t (joint with NP)
    • R&D for super neutrino beam facility ramps up
impacts of fy07 hep over target what s in
Impacts of FY07 HEP Over Target: “What’s In”

Facility Operations

  • Full operations of SLAC B-factory will be restored. Assumes BES contribution of $40M for linac ops.
    • Detector and accelerator upgrades planned for installation in FY 2006 to provide increased luminosity and cope with higher data rates will proceed as planned.
    • FY 2007 PEP-II luminosity will be ~150 fb-1.
    • Resolve whether current intriguing discrepancies in physics results between the SLAC B-factory and the Japanese B-factory are signs of new physics
    • Estimate ~80 FTE RIFs from SLAC HEP program in FY 2007 due to overall budget constraints, some of which will be picked up by BES to support LCLS construction.
impacts of fy07 hep over target what s in1
Impacts of FY07 HEP Over Target: “What’s In”

Research

  • ILC R&D: Expanded R&D and engineering that can support a 2011 construction start (see details)
    • Accelerated schedule for ILC construction positions the U.S. to regain world-leadership in HEP research in the next decade.
  • Restore core research and technology R&D: Overall core research activities in the HEP program will be restored to FY 2005 level-of-effort.
    • No RIFs in research activities.
    • The physics output of the B-factory and Tevatron Collider research programs will be maintained.
impacts of fy07 hep over target what s in2
Impacts of FY07 HEP Over Target: “What’s In”

Research

  • ESNet Upgrade:
    • This upgrade is funded in the ASCR Over Target budget but scientific impacts to the HEP program are described here.
    • This effort will implement a new architecture to serve the networking needs of all of the Office of Science, enabling programs to meet their future scientific goals which rely on data-intensive research.
    • SC networking requirements are driven by analysis of LHC data in FY07; other programs (nanotech, GTL) in later years.
    • Enable US researchers to fully analyze LHC data, maximize physics payoff and take a leading role in LHC discoveries
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Impacts of FY07 HEP Over Target: “What’s In”

New Initiatives

  • Neutrino Experiments: Neutrino physics experiments begun in the FY 2007 Target will be expanded to provide:
    • Optimized utilization of the NuMI facility, via an accelerated schedule for the electron neutrino appearance experiment (EvA) that allows completion of the detector one year earlier.
    • Domestic experimental facilities (reactor-based neutrino experiment)
    • New MIE project for neutrino physics experiment complementary to and independent of the double beta decay experiment funded by NP.
  • Super Neutrino Beam Facility: Engineering design on this next-generation neutrino facility would begin in FY 2007, with a construction start in FY 2009.
    • This facility will allow comprehensive studies of neutrino properties by providing a neutrino beam 10 times more intense than those available with current accelerators.
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Impacts of FY07 HEP Over Target: “What’s In”

New Initiatives

  • Dark Energy: Proceed with new experimental tools to study the mysterious dark energy
    • JDEM mission concept will be completed in FY 2007; start eng. design in 2009 and fabrication in 2011.
    • Ground-based dark energy camera (DES) begins fabrication in 2007
    • A new ground-based dark energy telescope (LSST) begins advanced engineering design in 2007, with a fabrication start in 2009.
      • This is a multipurpose telescope with unique capabilities for studying dark energy and other phenomena, and would likely be a joint effort with the National Science Foundation (NSF).
slide84

Examples of ILC – LHC Synergy

  • The LHC can observe that new massive particles exist; the ILC will pinpoint which new force created them.
  • The Higgs boson is responsible for giving mass to particles. If it exists, the LHC will observe it. The ILC will tell us if it is the standard model Higgs, or is more complex.
  • The LHC can measure a combination of the number of extra spatial dimensions and their size; the ILC allows disentanglement of the number and size separately.
slide85

Examples of ILC – LHC Synergy

  • Supersymmetry provides the leading candidate for dark matter in the universe. The ILC can isolate it and measure its mass, in turn allowing the LHC to refine its measurements. Combining with cosmic background radiation probes in space, we can tell if this particle is the only dark matter particle.
  • The LHC and ILC are both needed to determine if the fundamental forces are unified – Einstein’s dream.
slide86

era of OMB and DOE

era of stars and galaxies

era of atoms

era of nuclei

era of protons and neutrons

era of quarks and gluons

era of force unification

ILC as a telescope looking at the universe

in the first moments after the big bang.

slide87

ILC & Higgs

The Higgs boson is somewhat like the Bunraku puppeteers, dressed in black to be ‘invisible’, manipulating the players in the drama.

slide88

Curves denote different Higgs boson spins; ILC data cleanly discriminate.

supersymmetry

interaction rate

collision energy

ILC, Higgs &

SUSY

The ILC measures the properties of the Higgs boson – for example, its spin

and its decay fractions into different particles. If these differ from the standard model expectations, the pattern will tell us the nature of the more complex Higgs boson.

slide89

c20 mass error with ILC help

c20 mass

c20 mass error with no ILC help

neutralino mass

ILC & SUSY

The precise ILC neutralino mass measurement allows the LHC to pin down other particle masses much more accurately.

slide90

ILC & Dark Matter

Maybe ILC agrees with Planck; then the neutralino is likely the only dark matter particle.

Maybe ILC disagrees with Planck; this would tell us that there are different forms of dark matter.

slide91

ILC, Terascale & Grand Unification

go here

sense whats happening here

force strength

energy