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High Energy Physics at TIFR Started with Bhabha and ………. Tariq Aziz TIFR, Mumbai May 27-28, 09 Department of High Energy Physics 14 Faculty + 14 Students + 4 PostDoc 44 Eng + 25 Techs +15 Services + 4 Admin Accelerator Based CMS at CERN, Belle at KEK, D0 at Fermilab D0n

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High Energy Physics at TIFR

Started with Bhabha

and ……….

Tariq Aziz

TIFR, Mumbai

May 27-28, 09


Department of High Energy Physics

14 Faculty + 14 Students + 4 PostDoc

44 Eng + 25 Techs +15 Services + 4 Admin

Accelerator Based

CMS at CERN, Belle at KEK, D0 at Fermilab


Non-Accelerator based

  • Gravitation (Gauribidanur), Cold-atoms (Mumbai)
  • Neutrino physics (PUSHEP)

Cosmic rays(Ooty), Gamma-ray astronomy (Pachmarhi & Hanle)


India at LHC

First Large Scale Indian Participation in an International


Indian accelerator research labs, led by RRCAT, Indore, and

BARC, Mumbai, have contributed substantially, in kind, towards

the LHC machine

Indian scientists/software personnel are contributing in-kind

to the development of GRID software

Two groups: India-CMS & India-ALICE


Indian Participation in CMS Collaboration

TIFR and Panjab University

Hardware responsibilities:

- Outer hadron calorimeter

Ensure more hermetic calorimeter for missing energy

BARC and Delhi University

- Silicon Pre-shower Detector.

Discriminate between π0/ to detect Higgs  2γ mode

(for light Higgs favored by existing data)

2 mm strip width sensor


Outer Hadron Calorimeter of CMS

Extend HCAL outside the solenoid magnet and make additional shower sampling

CMS Detector ¼ Logitudinal view





Relevant for the late development of showers

ho basic design
HO basic design

Detector element is a plastic scintillator tile which produces light when charged particles pass through it

This light is collected by embedded WLS fibers

Light is transported to HPD detector via clear optical fibers spliced to WLS fibers

Size and placement of the tiles is matched to geometric towers in the Barrel calorimeter

Tiles are grouped together and packed in “trays” for ease of handling, and 6 trays in each phi sector are in turn inserted inside aluminum honeycomb housings.


Physics potentials of CMS Detector at LHC

Test the Standard (model) first and ensure

no surprises from the detector before the real surprises from new physics


A.K.Nayak, T.Aziz, A. Nikitenko

b-Tagging Crucial

Purity of b-tagging: IP3D Significance of 3rd track

B-discriminator >2.5

Efficiency < 40%

B-discriminator > 2.5

IP3D Significance of 3rd track

Efficiency< 40%

Expected measurement for 100 pb-11


A.K.Nayak, T.Aziz, A.Nikitenko

Needed for Higgs, SUSY bbA; A and CPV Higgs Search

Mass peak restored after b-jet corrections

Jets from Calo Towers

Evaluation of b-jet energy correction from data

Resolution is

improved by 25 %

From 10 fb-1 of data

measurement of z e
Measurement of Ze 

Benchmark process for Higgs searches

in Hemode.

e + channelis clean and will be free from severe systematics inherent for jets, specially during initial phase of LHC.

Will be used for normalising tl +jet rates.

e +  combination reduces Drell-Yan background and increases signal rate.

Visible mass in 100 pb-1

signal 520 event, bkg=20

S.Bansal +K.Mazumdar

invariant mass: assume collinear s  poor statistics

since e,  should not be back-to-back  affects mass resolution.

trileptons from chargino neutralino pair
Trileptons from Chargino-Neutralino pair (

Very low rate, but clean signal in exclusive mode: 3 isolated leptons with 2 OSSF + no hadronic activity in central region of detectorextended

coverage of calorimeter needed. Need to resort to mSUGRA model

2 possibilities for signal signatures, depending on parameter values:

Minvmax= m20-m10

M2invmax= (m220-m2~l)(m2~l-m210)/m2~l

Trileptons from pair can be seen with significance >5 , for m1/2 <250 GeV, with Lint >=30 fb-1

Accuracy of kinematical end

point (~m1/2) about 10 GeV

K.Mazumdar+ others

3-body decay:



Cosmic rays at CMS

Muon Charge Ratio at Very high momentum – Never done before


A.Nayak, T.Aziz, P.G.Abia

Charge ratio

Zenith Angle in Radian


Indian Participation in BELLE Experiment at KEKB

BELLE Experiment:

A worldwide Collaboration of 400 participants from 55 Institutions

Study the difference between particle and its anti-particle using

huge number of B and anti-B mesons And search for Rare B decays

Indian groups:

Tata Institute, Mumbai, Panjab University,

IMSC & IIT Chennai, IIT, Guwahati (recent)

Participation: modest

Data Taking, Detector Monitoring and Calibration,

Reconstruction Algorithms, Physics Analysis

R&D for next Detector phase


Determination of RDDCSD/CFD

N.Joshi, T.Aziz, K.Trabelsi

Estimate internal


Ds from , K*K, KsK and Ds* from Ds


Silicon Microstrip Detector Development R&D

For BELLE Detector Upgrade in the High Luminosity Phase

Also Develop inhouse capabilities for future participation where

High Resolution Tracking is Involved -- SLHC, FAIR , ILC….

Challenging High Tech Area

High Spatial Resolution Tracking Detector

Never Built Earlier in India

Industry Participation – Very Important

Phase I -- Single Sided

Phase II -- Double Sided


Indian Effort: Mask Design at TIFR, Processing at BEL

Single Sided - 11 Sets of 32 strips with different

strip width and pitch

Single Sided – 1024 strips with fixed strip width and pitch

Double-Sided with single metal contact

Double-Sided with double metal contact

Wafers with different crystal orientations

All on 4-inch n-type bulk wafer


Small Corner Under High Magnification

Polyresistors 3-4 M

For Common bias

DC pad and AC pad on

each strip

TIFR Effort on Silicon Microstrip Detector

Design, Simulation and Testing in Institute Lab

Fabrication at Bharat Electronics, Bangalore

On 300 m thin n-type silicon wafer

of 4-inch diameter

Developed Single Sided Detector

11 Sets of 32 strips each

Strip width 12 m to 48 m

Strip pitch 65 m to 120 m

Strip length 7.5cm

Strip p-type implant

AC coupled via Aluminum

Overhang - isolated by SiO2

For the first time truly Microstrip Detector developed in India


I – V Characteristics

All 11 sets pass

acceptance test


Double sided silicon detector

Specifications continued

Wafer crystal orientation : < 100 >,Type: FZ

Wafer thickness : 300 µm , Size : 4 inch

Resistivity : > 5 Kohm-cm

Breakdown voltage : > 300V

Polysilicon resistor value : > 4 Megaohms

Total Dark current : <= 2 microamps @ 100V

Number of Dead Strips < 1%

Area : 79600 x 28400

Effective Area : 76800 x 25600

Detectors Produced : 1) SSD - 5 No’s

2) DSSD – SL - 10 No’s

3) DSSD – DL - 10 No’s


Nex Step: 1024 strips

< 1 nam per strip at 100 volts


1024 Strips

We had difficulty with pin-holes. That problem is solved

Similar to Hammatsu

Number of bad strips < 0.5%

CMS acceptance < 1% bad strip


DSSD- N-type strips


DC pad


N-type strip width 12µm


a tiny corner of silicon detector

Silicon Microstrip Detector design and development,

1024 strips on one plane, 512 on the other plane of

300m thin silicon wafer, strip width 12m, length

7600m, common bias via polyresistors, required

for high resolution tracking

important cosmic ray research areas
Important Cosmic Ray Research Areas
  • Study of the elemental and isotopic composition of cosmic rays at GeV-TeV energies using balloon or satellite-borne detectors.
  • Gamma ray astronomy over the GeV-TeV-PeV-EeV energies.
  • Energy spectrum and composition around the knee (E ~ 3 x 1015 eV).
  • Energy spectrum and composition around the ankle (E ~ 3 x 1018 eV).
  • Energy spectrum and composition at energies ~ 1020 eV and observation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff.
grapes 3 air shower array at ooty
GRAPES-3 Air Shower Array at Ooty )

Most of the Detector Components produced in-house

High quality Scintillators produced at CRL Ooty

Forbush Decrease associated with the large Solar flare of 2003 Oct 28, observed with the GR-3 muon detector

October-November, 2003