Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

hollywood cultural imperialism n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism

play fullscreen
1 / 55
Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism
328 Views
Download Presentation
robert-contreras
Download Presentation

Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism Fall 2013Prof. Karl J. SkutskiDepartment of Modern Languages & Literatures

  2. The World Cinema Market:Admissions, worldwide Source: Focus 2010 World Cinema Market Trends, Marche du Film Festival de Cannes

  3. The World Cinema Market:Number of screens(sample listing—not ranking)

  4. The World Cinema Market:Number of feature films produced

  5. The World Cinema Market:Market share European Union France Germany Italy NationalUS Spain United Kingdom Russia

  6. The World Cinema Market:Market share North America India China NationalOther Turkey Japan

  7. (all time) • 2012 The World Cinema Market:

  8. The World Cinema Market:Top-grossing filmsof all time 1. Avatar (2009) $2,781,505,847 2. Titanic (1997) $1,835,300,000 3. The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) $1,129,219,252 4. Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006) $1,065,896,541 5. Toy Story 3 (2010) $1,062,984,497 6. Alice in Wonderland (2010) $1,023,285,206 7. The Dark Knight (2008) $1,001,921,825 8. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (2001) $968,657,891 9. Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End (2007) $958,404,152 10. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (2007) $937,000,866 11. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (2009) $933,956,980 12. Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace (1999) $922,379,000 13. The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) $921,600,000 14. Jurassic Park (1993) $919,700,000 15. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005) $892,194,397 16. Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs (2009) $887,773,705 17. Spider-Man 3 (2007) $885,430,303 18. Shrek 2 (2004) $880,871,036 19. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002) $866,300,000 20. Finding Nemo (2003) $865,000,000

  9. The World Cinema Market: “The Yanks have colonized our subconscious.”--Wim Wenders German director

  10. The World Cinema Market: “Americans have turned every cinema in the world into the equivalent of an American consulate.” --UK government report

  11. The World Cinema Market: “The average Western film requires nothing from the viewer. Its narrative sets up a series of questions in order to preserve an air of suspense...“Will Lassie bring the insulin to the diabetic hunter with the broken leg before he dies?” Then it logically answers each question ...Thus the typical Western film gives us what we want by telling us what we already know.”--Stuart Hancock

  12. The Hollywood Machine Production Distribution Megaplexes Video sales Video rentals Cable and pay-per view Merchandise

  13. The Hollywood Machine Titanic Harry Potter Star Wars Forest Gump Matrix Oceans 11 Meet the Parents $1.8 billion $1.0 billion 900 million 700 million 500 million 400 million 300 million

  14. The Hollywood Machine $1.8 billion $1.0 billion 900 million 700 million 500 million 400 million 300 million 80 million 20 million 7 million 4 million 1 million Titanic Harry Potter Star Wars Forest Gump Matrix Oceans 11 Meet the Parents Trainspotting Secrets & Lies Run Lola Run Red No Man’s Land

  15. The World Cinema Market:Representative listing of “foreign” films in the world market Source: worldwideboxoffice.com

  16. The Hollywood Machine AT Austria GR Greece BE Belgium IE Ireland DK Denmark IT Italy FR France LU Luxembourg FI Finland NL Netherlands DE Germany NO Norway SE Sweden PT Portugal CH Switzerland ES Spain CEE Central Europe & Turkey UK United Kingdom

  17. The Hollywood Machine

  18. The Hollywood Machine US = 36,000

  19. The Hollywood Aesthetic • The aesthetic of pretense • Studio system (films as products) • Star-centric • Formula approach to narrative • Hero - Problem - Overcome- Happy Ending • Rapid montage editing • Special effects • Non-diegetic music

  20. HollyŁódź: • “It’s all about how we have suffered and been oppressed” No middle class • Struggle for survival; pursuit of tolerable dignified existence • Wars happen here • Distrust of all governments • Film as mirror of harsh existence • Not many happy endings • “Dark, somber, ironic, existential” • Life can be tough Hollywood “It’s all about me”/ Star-centric Obsession with status, personal success and freedoms Pursuit of happiness Wars happen elsewhere America is the greatest Film as entertaining products Formula, “happy-ending” plots Aesthetic of pretense All is well

  21. A Matter of National & Cultural Identity • Migration of international directors to Hollywood(e.g., Forman, Polanski) • Expatriate productions (e.g., Nair, Mehta) • Co-national productions • International financing • Anti-Hollywood quotas (pro-national) • Government subsidization • TV as a funding and creative outlet (e.g., BBC Films and Film 4) • The Hollywoodization of world cinema • Globalization (e.g., SONY Pictures)

  22. Cultural Imperialism, Globalization& Contemporary World CinemaContemporary World CinemaSpring 2011

  23. Cultural Imperialism Cultural Imperialism: A critical introduction, defines the term as "the use of political and economic power to exalt and spread the values and habits of a foreign culture at the expense of a native culture.”

  24. Cultural Imperialism Cultural imperialism proposes that a society is brought into the modern world system when its dominating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced, and sometimes bribed into shaping its social institutions to correspond to, or even promote, the values and structures of the dominating center of the system.(Hebert Schiller, 1976).

  25. Cultural Imperialism Cultural Imperialism Theory states that Western nations dominate the media around the world which in return has a powerful effect on Third World Cultures by imposing on them Western views and therefore destroying their native cultures. (Theorist: Herb Schiller) Source, White, Livingston. “Reconsidering cultural imperialism theory.” Florida State University

  26. Cultural Imperialism or Globalization? Irving Kristol, in The Emerging American Imperialism, presents imperialism as an unintended consequence of market expansion rather than a conscious goal…he later argues that…in fact many nations have facilitated and welcomed American cultural values along with American products and ways of life: "it happened because the world wanted it to happen." To him, the American missionaries live in Hollywood, which is different from the Old European imperialism, which was based on bureaucratic colonial governments and resource extraction. Source, White, Livingston. “Reconsidering cultural imperialism theory.” Florida State University

  27. Cultural Imperialism or Globalization? Some theories of globalization see, instead of cultural imperialism, the movement of products and ideas from across national and cultural borders in ways that produce real changes in cultures like that of the United States. In 1994, MacQuail wrote in his book Mass Communication Theory that not only was United States influencing other cultures, but other cultures were also influencing the US…In that perspective, we can talk about an interpenetration of cultures instead of the invasion of American culture in the world. Source, White, Livingston. “Reconsidering cultural imperialism theory.” Florida State University

  28. Major Cinema Capitals of the World

  29. American Cinema’s Spheres of Influence

  30. The World Cinema Market:Market share European Union France Germany Italy NationalUS Spain United Kingdom Russia

  31. The World Cinema Market:Market share North America India China NationalOther Turkey Japan

  32. Parallels the Spread of Western Values

  33. Parallels the Spread of Western Values Free market economics Democracy Secularism Cultural materialism Multiculturalism Gender equality Religious tolerance Postmodernism Artistic freedom

  34. Parallels the Spread of Western Values Free market economics Democracy Secularism Cultural materialism Multiculturalism Gender equality Religious tolerance Postmodernism Artistic freedom Plus impact of technology and communications- Internet- Social media- Satellite TV

  35. Significant “National” Cinemas

  36. A Matter of National Identity “Recent national cinema studies emphasize that national identity is not a fixed and unchanging ‘essence’ but is actively constructed in films, which project national imaginaries, creating imaginary bounds holding the nation together.” Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.

  37. A Matter of National Identity “There are a number of similar themesacross the region’s [Europe’s] cinema. These include nationalism and national identity, borders and frontiers, migration…” Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.

  38. A Matter of National Identity “A rich vein running through these films…is their enlarged definition of Britishness.” Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.

  39. A Battle of World Views Communism Fundamentalism

  40. National “Defense” Strategies • Government subsidies • Government-supported film schools • Government protection (quotas on national productions versus foreign imports) • Taxes on foreign films • Censorship boards • National festivals • Co-production with other nations • 1993: Uruguay GATT discussions (French led campaign to exempt films from trade agreements) Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.

  41. Globalization of Cinema

  42. Globalization of Cinema

  43. Globalization of Cinema

  44. Co-Productions • UK:Director, Danny BoyleCelador Films (production)Film 4 (production)Fatts (post-production) • France:Pathe Pictures (production) • US:Modern Video Film (post-production)Fox, Warner (distribution) • India:ActorsTake One Productions (production services)FinancingMusic production

  45. Battle of World Views First World Nations - United States- Europe- Australia - Japan - S. Korea • Second World • - Russia • Eastern Europe • China • Third World • - India - Africa- Parts of S. America

  46. Seven Worlds Theory

  47. Seven Worlds Theory

  48. Seven Worlds Theory India SecularismDemocracyCultural materialismGlobalizationMulticulturalism FundamentalismTheocracyMonoculturalism

  49. Third Cinema Theory • First Cinema:Commercial, studio-based cinema based upon the Hollywood model (including Bollywood) • Second Cinema:European art cinema and cinema of “auteurs” • Third Cinema:Third-world production that is ideologically opposed to the filmmaking practices of both the First and Second Cinema- Manifesto by Argentinian film directors- Anti-American-European discourse- Post-colonial (celebration of “the Other”)- Africa, Latin America, and Asia- “Militant” (freedom for the repressed)- Political

  50. Cultural Imperialism, Globalization…or the Dynamic Nature of Cultures?