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BIOTECHNOLOGY & GM CROPS: OPPORTUNITIES, RISKS IN AFRICA PowerPoint Presentation
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BIOTECHNOLOGY & GM CROPS: OPPORTUNITIES, RISKS IN AFRICA

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BIOTECHNOLOGY & GM CROPS: OPPORTUNITIES, RISKS IN AFRICA

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BIOTECHNOLOGY & GM CROPS: OPPORTUNITIES, RISKS IN AFRICA

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  1. BIOTECHNOLOGY & GM CROPS: OPPORTUNITIES, RISKS IN AFRICA FANRPAN REGIONAL STAKEHOLDERS MEETING 31 Aug—4 Sept 2009, Maputo, Mozambique WYNAND J. VAN DER WALT FOODNCROPBIO Tel (+27)-12-347-6334 / 083-468-3471 wynandjvdw@telkomsa.net

  2. DEFINITIONS • BIOTECHNOLOGY • application of biological production systems • beer, bread, wine, cheese • MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY • tissue culture, embryo transfer, vaccination • GENETIC MODIFICATION = GM • transfer or alter genes • BIOSAFETY FRAMEWORKS • Regulatory systems to ensure safety

  3. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS • GM REQUIRES • SOLVING SPECIFIC PROBLEMS • ADAPTED VARIETIES • ACCEPTED BY FARMERS, POLITICIANS, CONSUMERS • PART OF FARMING TECHNOLOGIES • EXTENSION SERVICES • MANAGEMENT

  4. NATIONAL MAIZE CROP YIELDS PER HECTARE 1924 TO 2009 FOR FIVE PERIODS: OPVs, ADVENT OF HYBRIDS, PRIVATE HYBRIDS,INFUSION OF US GERMPLASM, AND IMPACT OF GM

  5. Figure 2

  6. M Acres 140 346 Total 296 120 Industrial 247 100 Developing 198 80 148 60 99 40 49 20 0 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Global Area of Biotech Crops, 1996 to 2008: Industrial and Developing Countries (M Has, M Acres) Source: Clive James, 2009

  7. Biotech Crop Countries and Mega-Countries, 2008

  8. SOME PROVEN BENEFITS OF GM CROPS • REDUCTION IN DAMAGE BY WEEDS, PESTS, DISEASES • INCREASED FARMER INCOME • REDUCTION IN CHEMICAL PESTICIDES • MORE SAFETY FOR HUMANS AND ENVIRONMENT • PROMOTED CONSERVATION FARMING • MORE HEALTHY FOODS • CROPS WITH SPECIALIZED TRAITS

  9. AFRICAN ISSUES, CONSTRAINTS,CONCERNS, RISKS • NEED POLICIES AND BIOSAFETY FRAMEWORKS • NEED SPECIAL TRAITS FOR SPECIAL PROBLEMS • ATTENTION TO AFRICAN FOOD CROPS • TRAITS IN ADAPTED VARIETIES • INTEGRATE WITH ACCESS TO OTHER INPUTS, EXTENSION, INFRASTRUCTURE, CREDIT, MARKETS • CONSIDER IMPACT ON BIODIVERSITY • POST-RELEASE MONITORING • TRADE BARRIERS • INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS • FARMER IMPATIENCE • EVIDENCE-BASED COMMUNICATION

  10. DISPARATIES IN AFRICAN APPROACHES • <10% EXPORT TRADE IS INTRA-AFRICA • S.AFRICA SOLE GM FLYER UNTIL 2008, THEN EGYPT AND BURKINA FASO • MOST BIOSAFETY FRAMEWORKS NOT YET IN PLACE – POLICIES? • STATUS RANGES FROM PRO- TO ANTI-BIOTECH, MANY UNCLEAR • A.P. RANGES 1% TO 0.5% TO 0.2% TO ZERO

  11. STAKEHOLDER ACTIONS • FANRPAN: STUDIES, REPORTS, PUBLICATIONS, ADVOCACY = NO PROMOTION • MANY STAKEHOLDERS, MUCH POLARIZATION, UNCOORDINATED • COMESA: INITIATIVE FOR HARMONIZATION OF BIOTECH POLICIES, BIOSAFETY FRAMEWORKS FARMER ACCESS TO TEST AND ADOPT FACILITATE TRADE IN GMO FACILITATE FOOD AID TRANSFER CENTRES OF EXELLENCE

  12. THANKS TO FANRPANAND TO THE AUDIENCE