HAND-HOLDING cum INTERACTION SESSION on ETPs/ STPs/CETPs & - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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HAND-HOLDING cum INTERACTION SESSION on ETPs/ STPs/CETPs &

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  1. HAND-HOLDING cum INTERACTION SESSION on ETPs/ STPs/CETPs & Concept of Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) A Presentation by JHARKHAND STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD on 22nd July, 2019 SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  2. MOTTO OF THE BOARD “MOVING FROM CONSENT TO COMPLIANCE WITH TRANSPARENCY” SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  3. INTRODUCTION • Under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, amended 1988 (and associated rules); the provision of the National Environment Policy (2008) and the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (amended 1991) and associated rules (1986); every industry has to provide adequate treatment of its effluents before disposal, irrespective of whether it is in stream, land, sewerage system or sea. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  4. Why it is Mandatory? • Hon’ble NGT vide its order dated 27/11/2018 in O.A. No. 148/2016 has emphasized on “utilization of treated water”. • Hon’ble NGT vide orders dated 20.09.2018 and 19.12.2018 in O.A. No. 593/2017 has directed the states “to bring the water quality as per prescribed standards. This direction implies taking of steps to set up STPs/ETPs/CEPTs and to monitor their proper functioning. ” or else Environmental Compensation is to be levied from the defaulter industries. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  5. EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  6. INDUSTRIES WHICH REQUIRE ETP Some industries which need to implant Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) to treat the waste water before it gets discharged are: 1. IRON & STEEL INDUSTRY 2. POWER PLANTS 3. MINES AND QUARRIES 4. FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES 5. RICE MILLS 6. PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  7. Contd. 7. Hospitals/Nursing Homes & Allied Industries 8. Hotels/Restaurants/Banquets & Allied Industries 9. Pulp & Paper Industry 10. Automobile Industries 11. Textile and Dye Industry 12. Dairy and Beverage Industries 12. Battery Manufacturing Industries 13. Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industries, etc. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  8. What is an ETP? • ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant) is a process design for treating the industrial waste water for its reuse or safe disposal to the environment. • Influent: Untreated industrial waste water. • Effluent : treated industrial waste water. • Sludge: Solid part separated from waste water by ETP. INFLUENTTREATMENTEFFLUENT ETP SLUDGE SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  9. WHY EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT (ETP) ??? • To clean industry effluent and recycle it for further use. • To reduce the usage of fresh/potable water in Industries. • To cut expenditure on water procurement. • To meet the Standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from various Industries set by the Government and avoid hefty penalties. • To safeguard environment against pollution and contribute in sustainable development. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  10. Iron and Steel Industry – water is generally used as Coolant and Lubricant in various stages of manufacturing or transformation. • Contaminated with especially ammonia, cyanide and include hydraulic oils, tallow and particulate solids. • Coke making plants - requires quenchingand in byproduct separation. • High value of TSS, BOD, COD, Phenols, Ammonia, Cyanide , etc. • Mines and quarries - slurries of rock particles in water, coal washing to separate coal from native rock using density gradients. • Fine particulate, haematite, surfactants, Oils and hydraulic oils are common contaminants. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  11. Electric power plants - Fossil-fuel power stations, particularly coal-fired plants are a major source of industrial wastewater. • Significant levels of metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium and chromium, as well as arsenic, selenium and nitrogen compounds. • Food Processing industry - Wastewater generated has distinctive characteristics. • it is biodegradable and non-toxic, but has high concentrations of BOD and suspended solids. • Animal slaughter and processing produces very strong organic waste from body fluids, such as blood, and gut contents. • Textile Dyeing - wastewater contain synthetic and natural dyestuff, gum thickener (guar) and various wetting agents. • pH buffers and dye retardants or accelerators. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  12. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  13. Sources of Hospital Wastewater • Patient wards & administration unit • Kitchen/canteen and laundry • Operating rooms and ICUs • Radiology & dialysis section • Laboratories, etc. What does hospital effluent consists of? Large variety of potentially hazardous components including, • Microbiological pathogens • radioactive isotopes • disinfectants & sterilizers • drugs and their metabolites • chemical compounds, heavy metals and pharmaceuticals etc SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  14. Why ETP plant in Hospitals and what is its objective? • Proper treatment of hospital wastewater is very much essential. •  If the effluent from hospitals is not properly treated, then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. • Objective of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) – • Remove suspended solids and organic matter as possible before the waste water is discharged back to the environment or re-used for various hospital purposes. • When untreated wastewater mixes with groundwater it can create significant health risks by causing serious infectious diseases to people who have suppressed immune systems. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  15. Effluent Discharge Standards- Hospitals SAVR EARTH SAVE WATER

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  17. Hotels/Banquets/Restaurants & Allied Industries Sources of effluent :washing of utensils, sink basins, restrooms and many such units. Major Issues : • About 70-75% of the hotel waste is biodegradable (like food, vegetable and other waste) • Get mixes with all other type of non-biodegradable waste (such as suspended solids, oils etc) when disposed at a collection spot. Why treat hotel effluent? • Hotels and restaurants contribute substantial amount of wastewater/effluent.  • To reduce the spread of disease causing pathogenic organisms in the effluent and to prevent the pollution of surface and groundwater. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  18. EFFLUENT DISCHARGE CONDITIONS: • For hotels with at least 20 bedrooms General Standards for discharge of effluent • pH - 5.5 - 9.0 • TSS <= 50 mg/l • BOD <= 30 mg/l • O&G <= 10 mg/l • Phosphate as P <= 1mg/l SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  19. Contd. • For hotels with less than 20 bedrooms or a Banquet Hall with minimum floor area of 100m2 or a restaurant with minimum seating capacity of 36 General Standards for discharge of effluent: • pH - 5.5 - 9.0 • TSS <= 100 mg/l • BOD <= 100 mg/l • O&G <= 10 mg/l • Phosphate as P <= 1mg/l SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  20. Contd. • If, the effluent is discharged into a municipal sewer leading to a Sewage Treatment Plant, the hotel or restaurant or banquet hall, as the case may be, shall provide a proper oil and grease trap for effluent arising from its kitchen and laundry and shall have to comply with the “General Standards for Discharge of Environmental Pollutants Part – A: Effluents” notified under Schedule – VI” SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  21. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  22. Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) for Rice Mill Source of waste water : • Para boiling tanks are main source of waste water generation. • Normally 1L water is required for boiling 1kg of paddy. • 40% water gets evaporated and 60% water comes as effluent- which needs treatment. Why for Rice Mills? • Effluent coming from various rice mill operations often contains high concentration of toxic organic and inorganic matter. • Consists of contaminants like: pH, Total Solids, Total dissolved solids, TSS, COD, BOD & etc. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  23. Effluent Discharge Standards : Rice Mills SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  24. EFFLUENT DISCHARGE STANDARDS The Environment (Protection ) Rules, 1986 (SCHEDULE – VI) (See rule 3A) GENERAL STANDARDS FOR DISCHARGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS PART – A : EFFLUENTS SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  25. Design of ETP The design and size of ETP depends upon : • Quantity and quality of the industries discharge effluent. • Land availability. • Monetary considerations for constructions, operation & maintenance. Area dimensions depends on : • Quality of waste water to be treated. • Flow rate • Type of biological treatment to be used. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  26. Treatment Levels & Mechanisms of ETP • Treatment levels: • Preliminary • Primary • Secondary • Tertiary (or advanced) • Treatment mechanisms: • Physical • Chemical • Biological SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  27. COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT(CETP) SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  28. CETP FOR??? • The small scale industrial units (SSI) - . • These include cluster of Textile industries, Tanneries, etc. • Large and Medium scale industries, other than those belonging to the 17categories of heavily polluting industries, may join the CETP after the primary treatment or as considered necessary by the concerned SPCB for the purpose of techno-economic viability of the CETP. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  29. COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT(CETP) CONCEPT AND NEED • Purposeful for cluster of small scale industrial units. • CETP helps easier control of pollution. • Beneficial incase of scarcity of land at the industry's level. • The neutralization and equalization of heterogeneous waste makes its treatment techno-economically viable • Comparatively easier availability of professional and trained staff for the operation of CETP, which can otherwise be difficult, at the individual industry level. • For the regulatory authorities - comparatively easier means of ensuring compliance of stipulated norms. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  30. Role of the Member Industrial Units • Carry the required primary treatment to meet inlet quality standards or design inlet quality parameters of CETP. • Monitor specified quality parameters and flow rate of the effluent on daily basis and submit the monitoring data to the CETP operator on regular basis. • Regularly pay their share towards meeting the treatment cost and operation and maintenance of a CETP. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  31. SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  32. WHY STP???? • To remove various contaminants present in sewage so as to produce an effluent and sludge which can be disposed off in the environment without causing health hazards or nuisance. • To meet the Standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants set by the Government and avoid hefty penalties. • To safeguard environment against pollution and contribute in sustainable development. • A centralized STP can be a vital component in an overall sewage and waste water treatment system for an urban area. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  33. STP For Whom??? • Urban Local Bodies • Townships • Apartments • Residential campuses of various Organizations / Institutions. • Hotels/Hostels/lodges, etc. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  34. What is an STP? • Sewage treatment is precisely Domestic waste water treatment. • It is a process of removing contaminants from municipal wastewater, containing mainly household sewage . • Physical, chemical, and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater (or treated effluent) that is safe enough for release into the environment. • A by-product of sewage treatment is a semi-solid waste or slurry, called sewage sludge. The sludge has to undergo further treatment before being suitable for disposal or application to land. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  35. TREATMENT OF SEWAGE The treatment of sewage consists of many complex functions. The degree of treatment depends upon the characteristics of the raw inlet sewage as well as the required effluent characteristics. Treatment processes are often classified as: (i) Preliminary treatment (ii) Primary treatment (iii) Secondary treatment (iv) Tertiary treatment. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  36. EFFLUENT DISCHARGE CONDITIONS:STP SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  37. ZERO LIQUID DISCHARGE (ZLD) SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  38. Applicable for: • Pulp & Paper industry • Tanneries • Pharmaceuticals and Drug industries • Textile Industries. • Power Plants • Distilleries • Sugar industries etc.. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  39. DEFINITION OF ZERO LIQUID DISCHARGE (ZLD) • An industrial plant without discharge of waste waters. • CPCB and SPCB/PCCs now, are insisting industries to reduce water consumption and also take measure to not to discharge effluents. • Broadly defined as the separation of an aqueous waste to its water and solids components • Wherein, the water is reused and solids (usually with some moisture) are disposed as a waste or byproduct. • ZLD will be recognized and certified based on two parameters – Water consumption versus waste water reused or recycled (permeate) and corresponding solids recovered. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  40. Need for Water Conservation • India has more than 18 percent of the world’s population but has only 4 percent of world’s renewable water resources with 2.4 percent of world’s land area. • India With a growing population and rising needs of a fast developing nation as well as the given indicators of the impact of climate change per capita availability of water is likely to go down from 1545 cubic metre per year in 2011 to 1341 cubic metre per year in 2025. • Also region wise it varies from 10 cm rainfall in Rajasthan to 1000 cm in North Eastern Region. There are further limits on utilizable quantities of water owing to uneven distribution over time, as 75 percent of annual rainfall is received in just four months SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  41. Need for Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) • Water scarcity • Strong enforcement of environmental regulations : Moratorium / CEPI, 18 (1) (b) directions under Water Act, • No disposal point available or land-lock area. • Highly polluting Industrial activity i e. dyes and dyes intermediates, pharmaceuticals, pesticide, etc. • Industrial effluent having very high TDS and/or Organic matter SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  42. Benefits of ZLD • Water Conservation / Generates make up water (reduces demand of fresh water). • Reduces the wastewater discharge i.e. reduces water pollution. • Preferred option for industry where disposal of effluent is major bottleneck. • Prevents exploitation of hydraulic capacity of disposal system . • Reduces cost of disposal at common infrastructure. • Separation of salts / residual solvents improve efficiency of ETP and CETP. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  43. Contd. • Separated solids valuable by-product which helps in reducing the pay back period. • Mixed solvent separated in stripper can be reused or used as AFR / Co-processing. • Ease in getting environmental permissions. • More focus on production/ business rather than tracking after regulatory authorities SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  44. The ZLD process: key steps • Involves a range of advanced water treatment technologies. • Pre-treatment: Waste water is filtered using membranes technologies such as ultra-filtration. Separated water is reused and a concentrate (polluted stream) is further treated. • Evaporation: The concentrate then enters a brine concentrator which is a mechanical evaporator using a combination of heat and vapor compression, resulting in a wet sludge. • Crystallization: Converts the sludge to solid waste using high pressure steam. Any remaining water is clean enough for reuse. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH

  45. PERMISSIONS REQUIRED FROM SPCB • Consent to Establish (CTE) for New Project :- Under The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 & The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. • Consent to Operate (CTO) :- Under section 25/26 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 & under section 21 of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. SAVE WATER SAVE EARTH