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Objectives • Definitions • Origins • Benefits • Theory/Posture and anatomy • Research • Practical
WHAT IS CORE STABILITY? “The system the body uses to give spinal support and maintain muscular balance while at the same time providing a firm base of support from which other muscles can work to enable the body to undertake its daily tasks. It is through this system of joint integrity and support that the body is able to maintain its posture – the position from which all movement begins and ends” Chek P. 2000
What is the CORE? • Lumbo-pelvic-hip complex • Location of center of gravity (CoG) • Efficient core allows for • Maintenance of normal length-tension relationships • Maintenance of normal force couples • Maintenance of optimal arthrokinematics • Optimal efficiency in entire kinetic chain during movement • Acceleration, deceleration, dynamic stabilization • Proximal stability for movement of extremities
CORE STABILITY “The ability to maintain neutral spine using the abdominal, back, neck and shoulder girdle muscles as stabilisers rather than movers”
Orthopaedic view “That state of muscular and skeletal balance which protects the supporting structures of the body against injury or progressive deformity, irrespective of the attitude in which these structures are working or resting” Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 1947.
NOT A NEW CONCEPT STATIC • Alexander Technique • Pilates DYNAMIC • Tai-chi/Karate • Swiss ball training
ALEXANDER TECHNIQUE 1869-1955 • PRINCIPLES • RE-EDUCATION OF KINAESTHETIC SENSE • QUIETING THE MIND TO FOCUS ON THE MIND/BODY CONNECTION • ESTABLISHING A GOOD HEAD AND NECK POSITION
JOSEPH PILATES 1880-1967 • PRINCIPLES • CONCENTRATION • ALIGNMENT • BREATHING • CO-ORDINATION • STAMINA
FITNESS PARAMETERS • CARDIOVASCULAR • STRENGTH / POWER/SPEED • ENDURANCE • FLEXIBILITY • CORE STABILITY • PROPRIOCEPTION / NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL
Paradigm Shift: No longer looking to improve strength in one muscle but improvement in multidirectional multidimensional neuromuscular efficiency (firing patterns in entire kinetic chain within complex motor patterns).
The Theories Spinal Stability • The passively supported spine (bone and ligament will collapse under 20lb (9kg) of load. • Muscular components that contribute to lumbo-pelvic stability which take up the slack
Control subsystem (Neural) Spinal stability Active subsystem (spinal muscles) Passive subsystem (spinal column) Adapted from Panjabi (1992)
Neutral Zone Concept Every joint has a neutral zone or position Overall internal stresses and muscular efforts are minimal A region of intervertebral motion around the neutral position where little resistance is offered by the passive spinal column (Panjabi 1992) • Movement outside this region is limited by the ligamentous structures providing restraint
Control of the Neutral Zone Ligaments - support end of range only - Can be unstable/over-stretched Muscle - Can compensate for instability - Increase the stiffness of the spine - Decrease the neutral zone - Form basis for therapeutic intervention in treatment of spinal stability
Clinical instability • A significant decrease in the capacity of the stabilising system of the spine to maintain the internal neutral zones within physiological limits which results in pain and disability (Panjabi)
Patho-Kinesiological model • Muscular system • Articular system • Neural system • All three must work as an integrated unit • The movement system requires optimum function of the core stabilisers resulting in precise arthokinematics and osteokinematics (Sarhmann 2000)
Spinal Stability • Demonstrated that submaximal levels of muscle activation adequate to provide effective spinal stabilisation • Continuous submaximal muscle activation crucial in maintaining lumbopelvic stability for most daily tasks.
Benefits of Spinal Stability • Improve Posture and prevent deformities • More stable Centre of Gravity and control during dynamic movements • contribute to optimal movement patterns • breathing efficiency • Distribution of forces and absorption of forces • Reduce stress on joint surfaces and pain • Injury prevention and rehabilitation
Improved PostureRe-education of stabilisersReduced stress on jointsReduced injuryIncrease function and sports performance.
For Sporting Performance • Forces transmitted - trunk to the limbs • Core muscles support the spine to transmit power from the trunk. • Power is transferred for kicking and throwing activities • If the peripheral limbs are too heavy this will cause stress on the chassis
Functional Anatomy • 29 muscles attach to core • Lumbar Spine Muscles • Transversospinalis group • Rotatores • Interspinales • Intertransversarii • Semispinalis • Multifidus • Erector spinae • Iliocostalis • Longissimus • Spinalis • Quadratus lumborum • Latissimus Dorsi
Transversospinalis group • Poor mechanical advantage relative to movement production • Primarily Type I muscle fibers with high degree of muscle spindles • Optimal for providing proprioceptive information to CNS • Inter/intra-segmental stabilization • Erector spinae • Provide intersegmental stabilization • Eccentrically decelerate trunk flexion & rotation • Quadratus Lumborum • Frontal plane stabilizer • Works in conjunction with gluteus medius & tensor fascia latae • Latissimus Dorsi • Bridge between upper extremity & core
Abdominal Muscles • Rectus abdominus • External obliques • Internal obliques • Transverse abdominus • Work to optimize spinal mechanics • Provide sagittal, frontal & transverse plane stabilization
STABILISING CORE MUSCLES • THE INNER CORE • Transversus abdominus • Multifidus • Pelvic Floor Muscles • Diaphragm
The Outer Core Systems • Anterior Oblique – ext and int obliques and contralateral hip adductors connected by anterior abdominal fascia • Posterior Oblique – Lat Dorsi and contralateral Glut Max connected by T/L fascia • Deep Longitudinal – Erector spinae and c/l sacrotubrous ligament and biceps femoris (connected by T/L fascia) • Lateral– Glut med and min and c/l adductors