Human-Animal Relations views from the Yamalpeninsula Dmitry Arzyutov Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, St.Petersburg, Russia;University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK arcticdomus.org
Introduction An Outlook of Field Data
Yamal: Tambei Tundra • Yamal, April-May • Reindeer samples • Interviews • Photos • Field diary • Field report is published in “Materials of field works” in St.Petersburg (2014) in Russian
Part I Animal ‘Society’ in the Kinship paradigm(as an article, might be for HAU journal)
Veneko:Living on the Human Beings Side • Close relations with family members living in one tent (chum) • Sharing food during the day and sleeping place at night • Mutual sleeping when heart is out = “warm relations” • Strategies of dogs binding to the chum framework
Veneko:Living on the Human Beings Side • Constructing dog genealogy through he exchanges between tents (chums). • Knowing human beings and “control” of living place. • Urinesigns of the dogs around living places and human-made objects
Human-dog relations within chum Human beings dogs The tent of family where all of its members live on one side of the tent Different space sharing at night and during the day.
Ty: Outside the Chum • Reindeer far from the chum • Herd of reindeers as ‘collective’ • Tendency to separate herd from the other herds (endogamy strategy): since reindeers can mix and change their “character”
Ty: Outside the Chum • Constructing reindeer genealogies through human genealogy • The story of herd is the story of husband and wife including patri- and matrilinear ancestors
Kinship paradigm • David Schneider (1968, 1984), Janet Carsten (2000, 2004) and Marshal Sahlins (2011a-b, 2013). Kinship as a “mutual being” • Mutual practices and creation of animal biography through exchange relations and patri- and matrilineal genealogies • Common stories and co-existence as a background of human-animal fictive kinship where animals play important role
Part II Towards an Anthropology of Speed (as a paper at the panel, ICASS, Canada)
Speed and Domestication • Wild reindeer means fastreindeer among Nenets • Every spring ёрколӑвӑthere is a practice of reindeer speed regulation and technics of driving incorral • Herdsmen use special wood tools to regulate the reindeer speed and rhythm of movement • Regulation of speed as a technics of reindeer domestication
Part III Pets in the Nenets Tent
Pets in the Nenets Tent • Cats have been inhabiting in Nenets chums for approximately last fifteen years • Nenets use them in ritual against wolves. There is an idea wolf is afraid of cats • As friends of mine tell me cat in tundra ‘dedomesticating’ (zvereet). • I have collected just several stories and this topic should be researched in near future
Further working Nenets animal ‘ethnicity’; Archival work
Nenets multispecies • Human beings • Reindeer • Dog • Cats • Fish Herdsmanis calling up reindeer with fish and words: “khale, khale… (‘fish, fish…’)”
Animal ‘ethnicity’ Reconstruction of the history of “Nenets” Reindeer Specie and “Samoed” Dog Specie in Science and Anthropology. What does “ethnic” name of animal speciesmean? Why is there a difference between Samoed and Nenetsanimal speciesnaming? Relations between ethnogenesis concept in the Soviet ethnography and naming animal species.
Verbov on Reindeer Husbandry Working with Verbov archive in MAE RAS. Preparing for publication his article “Nenets Reindeer Husbandry” (1930s) with detailed description of technics, tools reindeer driving. He as an ethnographer lived among European, Yamal and Taimyr Nenets several years and collected a lot of material on their culture, language and economy.
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