States of Consciousnessstolen from appsychology.comwith changes by Mr. C
14 note cards (Chap 5) • What is the iceberg theory of consciousness? • What is melatonin? • What is the reticular activating system? • What is stage 1 sleep? Stage 2 sleep? • What is stage 3 sleep? Stage 4 sleep? • Draw sleep brain waves. • What is REM? nREM? • What are circadian rhythms? Jet Lag? • When do nightmares, sleepwalking and night terrors happen? • Why do we dream (3 theories)? • What are sleep disorders? • What is manifest content of dreams? Latent content? • Blank • blank
Psychology Announcements • I need you to buy a package of note cards for a grade. • There will be a midterm covering chapters 1,2,3,4 (no questions on Memory except for hippocampus) Therefore you need to study all of your note cards this next week. The test will have 52 questions so know your stuff. • Don’t forget: What does the A stand for in AP?
When we are awake we are? In a state of Consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our surroundings.
Conscious preconscious Unconscious
Why do we daydream? • They can help us prepare for future events. • They can nourish our social development. • Can substitute for impulsive behavior.
Biological Rhythms Annual Cycles: seasonal variations (bears hibernation, seasonal affective disorder) 28 day cycles: menstrual cycle. 24 hour cycle: our circadian rhythm 90 minute cycle: sleep cycles.
Circadian Rhythm • Our 24 hour biological clock. • Our body temperature and awareness changes throughout the day. • It is best to take a test or study during your circadian peaks. How can the circadian rhythm help explain jet lag? Knee pad light exposure experiment Sunday night insomnia
Circadian Rhythms – 24 hr sleep/awake cycle. Teens have a later one • Regulation of sleep/other body functions • Circa = about • Dian = day
Jet Lag • A disruption of circadian rhythms • Flying to California is easier than flying to New York
What is melatonin? • A hormone produced by pineal gland at night to help you sleep. Sunlight tells your body to stop producing it. • Helps regulate circadian rhythms
Which part of the brain would be responsible for arousing and alerting the body to environmental stimuli? • medulla • amygdala • thalamus • reticular formation
Sleep Stages • There are 5 identified stages of sleep. • It takes about 90-100 minutes to pass through the 5 stages. • The brain’s waves will change according to the sleep stage you are in. • The first four sages and know as NREM sleep.. • The fifth stage is called REM sleep.
Stage One • This is experienced as falling to sleep and is a transition stage between wake and sleep. Not really sleep. It usually lasts between 1 and 5 minutes and occupies approximately 2-5 % of a normal night of sleep. • eyes begin to roll slightly. • consists mostly of theta waves (high amplitude, low frequency (slow)) • (think theta = thin) Hallucinations can occur and feeling of falling.
Stage Two • This follows Stage 1 sleep and is the "baseline" of sleep. • This stage is part of the 90 minute cycle and occupies approximately 45-60% of sleep.
Stage Three & Four • Stages three and four are "Delta" sleep or "slow wave" sleep and may last 15-30 minutes. • It is called "slow wave" sleep because brain activity slows down dramatically from the "theta" rhythm of Stage 2 to a much slower rhythm called "delta" and the height or amplitude of the waves increases dramatically.
Stage Three and Four (continued) • Contrary to popular belief, it is delta sleep that is the "deepest" stage of sleep (not REM) and the most restorative. • It is delta sleep that a sleep-deprived person's brain craves the first and foremost. • In children, delta sleep can occupy up to 40% of all sleep time and this is what makes children unawake able or "dead asleep" during most of the night. Sleep walking during This stage.
REM SLEEP • REM: Rapid Eye Movement • AKA “paradoxical sleep” • This is a very active stage of sleep. • Composes 20-25 % of a normal nights sleep. • Breathing, heart rate and brain wave activity quicken. • Vivid Dreams can occur. • From REM, you go back to Stage 2
REM • Body is essentially paralyzed during REM (sleep paralysis). • Genitals become aroused. Erections and clitoral engorgement. • “Morning Erections” are from final REM stage. A typical 25 year old man has an erection during half of his sleep. A 65 year old- one quarter.
How do we study sleep? • We use an EEG, an electroencephalogram. It measures electrical waves from the brain. Think delta = deep
How much sleep do we need? • We all need different amounts of sleep depending on our age and genetics. • But we ALL sleep- about 25 years on average. Stage 4 sleep is the most restorative. However, for some reason, we need REM sleep. Evidence: REM rebound
REM Rebound • The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation. • What will happen if you don’t get a good nights sleep for a week, and then sleep for 10 hours? You will dream a lot.
The Need for Sleep Over the years, the need for REM sleep decreases considerably, while the need for NREM sleep diminishes less sharply
Why do we need sleep?(Two theories) • Ecological Niche: back in the day, darkness meant death, those that slept did not go out, thus did not die. Sleep protects us.
Insomnia • Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep. • Not your once in a while (I have a big test tomorrow) having trouble getting to sleep episodes. • Insomnia is not defined by the number of hours you sleep every night.
Sleep Apnea • A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings. • Insomnia and Apnea are the most common sleep disorders.
Narcolepsy • Characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. • Lapses directly into REM sleep (usually during times of stress or joy).
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified. Occur in Stage 4, not REM, and are not often remembered. Night Terrors
Sleepwalking(Somnambulism) • Sleepwalking is a sleep disorder affecting an estimated 10 percent of all humans at least once in their lives. • Sleep walking most often occurs during deep non-REM sleep (stage 3 or stage 4 sleep) early in the night.
Sleepwalking • The sleep walking activity may include simply sitting up and appearing awake while actually asleep, getting up and walking around, or complex activities such as moving furniture, going to the bathroom, dressing and undressing, and similar activities. Some people even drive a car while actually asleep. The episode can be very brief (a few seconds or minutes) or can last for 30 minutes or longer. • One common misconception is that a sleep walker should not be awakened. It is not dangerous to awaken a sleep walker, although it is common for the person to be confused or disoriented for a short time on awakening. Another misconception is that a person cannot be injured when sleep walking. Actually, injuries caused by such things as tripping and loss of balance are common for sleep walkers.
Another problem with sleep meds is they cause you to spend too much time in Stage 4 but not enough time in REM
Dreams • A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind. Manifest Content: the remembered storyline of a dream. Latent Content: the underlying meaning of a dream.