Cummins Chapters and Assessment EDRL 485. Authors: Brandi Pineda Cassandra Silva Calise Cardin. Section 2: Chapter 2 Summary. Conceptualizing Language Use & Second Language Learning Contextual Support Cognitive Demand & Content in Context Language as Context & Language as Content.
1. BICS and CALP can be seen in terms of context and cognitive demand in various combinations.2. Both comprehension of the text and production of an essay depend heavily on knowledge of language itself.3. Teaching and learning activities which are well supported by contextual cues are more comprehensible.
For contextual support to be effective, it has to be conceived from the point of view of the learner.
Learners' background knowledge about the learning tasks—a learner's initial understanding of a learning situation and learning task depend on what prior knowledge he/she already knows.
Use of drama, visual/audio material and realia—learners understanding of new information and skills can be enhanced by means of graphic and audio materials of various kinds.
Use of language in the classroom—moments of teacher-pupil interaction provide the opportunity for negotiated language use adjusted to the needs of the learner.
Learning styles and personal references—learners have different views and references influenced by previous learning experiences, personality traits, and capacity to deal with learning tasks.
Classroom environment and school culture—a learner's perception of how others in school regard them is an important factor in determining the level of participation in learning and achievement.Contextual Support
Cognitive demand has to be seen in terms of curriculum content
Cognitive demand of any learning task is seen through the content knowledge and skills to be learnedCognitive Demand & Content in Context
Providing contextual support for second language learners in the classroom means a highly language conscious approach to the learning environment and the content to be learned.
Summarized by Calise Cardin
Questions a teacher should ask before using this method of
1. Analyze the task by looking at the linguistic and cognitive demands.
2. Look at the linguistic demands in relation to linguistic ability of the child.
3. Can the task be more context embedded by making it more culturally relevant?
4. How else can the task be more context embedded if this is necessary?
5. Is the child grouped with supportive monolingual role models?
(Cummins, pg. 41)
What CRA Sheets Do:
The danger of such standardized tests is that it may be assumed from their results that bilingual learners are cognitively inferior to their monolingual peers. This in turn may mean that negative assumptions are made about the intellectual ability of bilingual learners so that they are given work that is less cognitively demanding.( Cine and Frederickson,pg.48)
Involves setting a common task for the class.
Students learning will be varied according to their individual capacity and interests.
Working in Partnership: standard practice to support students learning English as a 2nd language w/in a mainstream classroom.
The role of talk in the classroom: an essential part of learning for bilingual students is working in groups. Talking with others is the key to language acquisition.
Use of mother tongue in the classroom: bilingual students must be encouraged to use their first language in the classroom because it confirms meaning and the conceptualization of complex issues will be improved.
Active & collaborative learning in small groups: students that work together get to share skills and ideas. Working together develops a supportive classroom atmosphere where students learn to give and receive help from each other independently of the teacher.
Shoebottom , Paul . "Second language acquisition - essential information." A Guide to Learning English. Frankfurt International School, n.d. Web. 5 Feb 2012.<http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/cummin.htm>.
Cline, Tony, and Nora Frederickson. Curriculum Related Assessment, Cummins and Bilingual Children. Multilingual Matters, 1996. Print.
Background Information: Students have just finished a unit on rocks.
Assessment Format: Using the AMI’S Web format, an reading and vocabulary assessment is formed. Using the book The Magic School Bus : Rock Collection, pieces of this story are used to form (see next slide for assessment)
What this tool will show: It will allow the teacher to see if all students are familiar with and able to use the key vocabulary that was learned in this unit of study.
Most Amis Web Assessments are given one minute to finish. This assessment is untimed because we want to see what words students know instead of their fluency.
rock. The small rocks that we collect are just pieces that broke off from 29
huge masses. There are three types of rocks. The first type is sedimentary. 42
This rock is made up of sediments, looks like pieces of sand glued 55
together. A second type of rock is metamorphic rock. This rock is 67
made by heat and pressure . A third type of rock is igneous. 79
This rock is made by heat, it is also known as a volcanic rock. 93
All rocks are composed of minerals. Minerals are made up of 104