Chapter 1 – HSAP Reading Word Meanings and Analysis Pages 29-60
How? • When you took the HSAP and you read an unfamiliar word what did you do to figure out the meaning of the word?
Five Methods • The next time you are stumped by the meaning of a word or phrase there are 5 methods to consider in order to figure out the meaning of the word. • Dictionary/Thesaurus (You may only use on the written response section of the HSAP.) • Context Analysis • Denotation & Connotation • Literal & Figurative Language (Idioms & Euphemisms) • Word Origin
Dictionary/Thesaurus • One method for understanding word meaning is using a dictionary or thesaurus. • Dictionaries define and spell the word and a thesaurus provides antonyms and synonyms for a specific word.
Context Clues • A second method is understanding context clues. • Context refers to the words and ideas in the text surrounding a word. Other words in a sentence holds clues to what difficult or unfamiliar words mean. • Ex: Green algae remain dormant until rains revive them. • Dry • Dead • Small • Inactive - Read and discuss page, 31.
Denotative & Connotative as Context Clues • Denotative meaning is the apparent or defined meaning; a definition that could be found in a dictionary. • Connotative meaning is the secondary use of a word assigned by society. • Ex: The words delicate and fragile can both mean easily broken. However, if you told a ballerina that her movements were delicate, she would probably thank you. But, if you told her that her movements were fragile, she might be offended. While both of these words denote “easily broken,” the connotation of delicate is positive while that of fragile can be negative.
Connotation & Denotation • Complete practice 5 & 6 beginning on page 39.
Literally & Figuratively • The third method of studying word meaning is to understand the literal and figurative meaning of words. • Literal meaning is the exact meaning of the word. • Figurative meaning is an exaggerated meaning of words, it often paints a picture and can be found in poetry, fiction and everyday speech. • Idioms and euphemisms are examples of figurative language.
Literally & Figuratively • Idiom- a common expression or phrase that has a figurative or imaginative meaning. Ex: It is raining cats and dogs. • Euphemisms – expressions used to avoid unpleasant words or ideas. Ex: Dearly departed
Idioms & Euphemisms Give my right arm. It's Greek to me. Final straw. Let the cat out of the bag. Mum's the word. Out on a limb. Pay through the nose. Spill the beans. Take a rain check. Through the grapevine. True colors. Under the weather. Up my sleeve. • At the drop of a hat. • Axe to grind. • Back to square one. • Bells and whistles. • Passed away. • Burn the midnight oil. • Cold feet. • Coast is clear. • Down in the dumps. • Correctional facility. • Walking on eggshells.
Literally & Figuratively • It may be difficult to understand the difference between literal and figurative meanings, but there are two tips that will help you! • Understand the author’s purpose for writing. If the text’s purpose is to inform the language is most likely literal. If the text is to entertain or tell a story, the word meanings may be figurative. • Become familiar with different idioms, euphemisms, and types of figurative language (metaphor, simile, personification, and so on.) Complete practice 7, & 8 beginning on page 42.
Origins of Words • The fourth method of building word meaning is to learn about some of the origins of English words. • Knowing word origins can improve your vocabulary and many new words have been formed from the same original word. • Ex. An example is the rood word mare (Latin for sea) and the English words maritime, marine, and marina.
Origin of Words • Read over the chart of suffixes on page 46. Complete practice 9B, & 10 beginning on page47.
WHAT TO DO? • Based on this lesson, what should you think about while taking the HSAP to figure out the meaning of an unfamiliar word? • Context Clues • Denotation & Connotation • Literal & Figurative (Idioms & Euphemisms) • Word Origin
Complete the review for Chapter 1, beginning on page 54. Complete the entire review.