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Matter: Properties & Change. Chapter 3. Matter. Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space Everything around us Chemistry – the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. Four States of Matter. Solids particles vibrate but can’t move around fixed shape fixed volume

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Presentation Transcript
matter
Matter
  • Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space
    • Everything around us
  • Chemistry – the study of matter and the changes it undergoes
four states of matter
Four States of Matter
  • Solids
    • particles vibrate but can’t move around
    • fixed shape
    • fixed volume
    • incompressible
four states of matter1
Four States of Matter
  • Liquids
    • particles can move around but are still close together
    • variable shape
    • fixed volume
    • Virtually incompressible
four states of matter2
Four States of Matter
  • Gases
    • particles can separate and move throughout container
    • variable shape
    • variable volume
    • Easily compressed
    • Vapor = gaseous state of a substance that is a liquid or solid at room temperature
four states of matter3
Four States of Matter
  • Plasma
    • particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-)
    • gas-like, variableshape & volume
    • stars, fluorescentlight bulbs, TV tubes
physical properties
Physical Properties
  • Physical Property
    • can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
physical properties1
Physical Properties
  • Physical properties can be described as one of 2 types:
  • Extensive Property
    • depends on the amount of matter present (example: length)
  • Intensive Property
    • depends on the identity of substance, not the amount (example: scent)
extensive vs intensive
Extensive vs. Intensive
  • Examples:
    • boiling point
    • volume
    • mass
    • density
    • conductivity
density a physical property
Density – a physical property

Derived units = Combination of base units

Volume (m3 or cm3 or mL)

length  length  length

Or measured using a graduated cylinder

M

V

D =

1 cm3 = 1 mL

1 dm3 = 1 L

  • Density (kg/m3 or g/cm3 or g/mL)
    • mass per volume
density
Density

An object has a volume of 825 cm3 and a density of 13.6 g/cm3. Find its mass.

GIVEN:

V =

D =

M = ?

WORK:

density1
Density

A liquid has a density of 0.87 g/mL. What volume is occupied by 25 g of the liquid?

GIVEN:

D =

V =

M =

WORK:

density2
Density

Mass (g)

Units of the slope

units of y

units of x

= g/cm3

Volume (cm3)

proportions

y

y

x

x

Proportions
  • Direct Proportion
  • Inverse Proportion
percent error

your value

accepted value

Percent Error
  • Indicates accuracy of a measurement
percent error1

% error = 0.04/1.36 = 3 %

Percent Error
  • A student determines the density of a substance to be 1.40 g/mL. Find the % error if the accepted value of the density is 1.36 g/mL.
chemical properties
Chemical Properties
  • Chemical Property
    • describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity
physical vs chemical properties
Physical vs. Chemical Properties
  • Examples:
    • melting point
    • flammable
    • density
    • magnetic
    • tarnishes in air
physical changes
Physical Changes
  • Physical Change
    • changes the form of a substance without changing its identity
    • properties remain the same
  • Examples: change in shape or size, dissolving, change in color by dying, all phase changes,
phase changes physical
Phase Changes – Physical
  • Evaporation =
  • Condensation =
  • Melting =
  • Freezing =
  • Sublimation =
chemical changes
Chemical Changes
  • Process that involves one or more substances changing into a new substance
    • Commonly referred to as a chemical reaction
    • New substances have different compositions and properties from original substances
chemical changes1
Chemical Changes
  • Signs of a Chemical Change
    • change in color or odor (not by dying)
    • formation of a gas (bubbling)
    • formation of a precipitate (solid)
    • change in light or heat
physical vs chemical changes
Physical vs. Chemical Changes
  • Examples:
    • rusting iron
    • dissolving in water
    • burning a log
    • melting ice
    • grinding spices
matter flowchart

yes

no

yes

no

Is the composition uniform?

Can it be chemically decomposed?

Matter Flowchart

MATTER

yes

no

Can it be physically separated?

pure substances
Pure Substances
  • Element
    • composed of identical atoms
    • EX: copper wire, aluminum foil
pure substances1
Pure Substances
  • Compound
    • composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio
    • properties differ from those of individual elements
    • EX: table salt (NaCl)
mixtures
Mixtures
  • Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances.

Heterogeneous

Homogeneous

mixtures1
Mixtures
  • Solution
    • homogeneous
    • very small particles
    • particles don’t settle
    • EX: rubbing alcohol
mixtures2
Mixtures
  • Heterogeneous
    • medium-sized to large-sized particles
    • particles may or may not settle
    • EX: milk, fresh-squeezed lemonade
mixtures3
Mixtures
  • Examples:
    • tea
    • muddy water
    • fog
    • saltwater
    • Italian salad dressing