高考英语阅读解题 方法指导－－－猜词技巧 难度﹡﹡﹡﹡
How do you deal with the unfamiliar words or phrases while reading? • Ignore them and continue reading • Look them up in the dictionary • Guess the meaning
词义理解题常见的题型有: • The underlined word (phrase, term) “…” means _____. • According to the passage, the word “…” properly means _____. • The word “…” in paragraph … refers to ____. • By “…”, the author means _____. • Which of the following is closest in meaning to “…”?
Guess the missing words 1.He would ______ the gold from his grandma. 2.. Unlike his brother, Hobart is quite ______. steal Harvey is a thief: he would ______ the gold from his grandma and not feel guilty. Unlike his brother, who is truly a handsome person, Hobart is quite ____________. ordinary-looking plain/homely
Guessing unknown words/ vocabulary 1. The lion has its “territory” , which is an area that an animal ,usually the male, claims（声称）as its own. “territory” means ___________ an area( that---own) 动物地盘 定语从句或其后的句子其实是一种定义或解释 2. He is a resolute man. Once he makes up his mind to do something, he won’t give it up halfway. The underlined word means____. A.strong B. determined C. kind D. clever
技巧归纳1: Use __________________________ 利用__________________________ definition or explanation 定义或解释猜测词义 Signal words: means, refers to, be called, be known as ,can be defined as, in other words,that is , that is to say, 定语从句…..etc.
Pruning is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots(嫩芽）, or young leaves of trees. The word “pruning” means______ A. Regular cutting（修剪） of the plants B. Frequent watering C. Regular use of chemicals D. Growing the plants high in the mountain 技巧归纳 2 ： Using________________________________ 根据________________________________ common sense or experience 普通常识和经验
1. In fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat, exist in the U.S. today． “ocelot” means _________________ an endangered wild cat 2.The period of adolescence, the period between childhood and adulthood ,may be long or short. “adolescence” means___________ The period between childhood and adulthood 技巧归纳3: 利用____________________ from___________________ 同义/同位语 similarity/appositive
The largest player – Shanghai Bashi Tourism Car Center offers a wide variety of choices, such as deluxe sedans, minivans, station wagons, coaches. Santana sedans are the big favorite of the tourists. … The words “deluxe sedans,” “minivans” and “station wagons” used in the text refer to ____. A. cars in the making B. car rental firms C. cars for rent D. car makers Signal words：for example ，for instance，such as ，like，as---as，etc. 技巧归纳4: 利用_____________ 举例 from examples
1. The snow was falling.Big flakes drifted(飘） with the wind like feathers. 雪花，雪片 Signal words:as, like, the same as，unlike, but，however, on the contrary, while,instead…ect. 2. Unlike hergregarious sister, Jane is a shy person who does not like to go to parties or make new friends. 爱交际的 技巧归纳5： 利用________________ From_________________ 比较或对比 comparison or contrast
(1)Overwork may cause diseases. over（过分的、过量的）＋work＝overwork“工作过度”。 (2)There was a dissatisfied look in the manager's eyes. dis “不”+ satisfied“满意的=dissatisfied “不满意的”。 技巧归纳6: 利用__________________ From__________________________ 构词法（前缀、后缀、复合、派生等） Word formation
1. Is he intelligent or stupid? 2.Most women in Ghana--- the educated and illiterate, the urban and rural, the young and old--- work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers. Their reputation for economic independence, self-reliance, and hard work is well known and well deserved. The underlined word “illiterate” in the passage means ____. A. Repeated B. reiterated. C uneducated D. sick clever 技巧归纳7: 利用___________________________ From__________________________ 同义词或反义词的关系猜词。 Synonym or Antonym.
I feel that since you are my superior（上司）, it would be presumptuousof me to tell you what to do .” The word “presumptuous” is closest in meaning to “ ” . A．full of respect B． rude and too confident C．lacking in experience D．too shy and quiet B Signal words: because，since ,so, such…that,so…that, ect. 原因与结果关系猜词 from Cause and Result 技巧归纳8： 利用______________________ From _______________________
The official asked the man what his occupation was. The man told him that he worked as an engineer. A. work B. study C. name D. interest 技巧归纳9: Use_____________________________ 利用_____________________________ worked as an engineer. context or related information 上下文的语境
More practice. Finish Exx.1 to 10 , then discuss the answers with your group.
猜词技巧 Tips for guessing the meaning of words 1.利用定义或解释 2.利用普通常识和经验 3.利用同义/同位语 4.利用举例 5.利用比较或对比 6.利用构词法（前缀、后缀、复合、派生等） 7.利用同义词或反义词 8.利用原因与结果关系猜词 9.利用上下文的语境
1 . A good teacher works in quite a different way. His audience take an active part in his play: they ask and answer questions, they obey orders, and if they don’t understand something, they say so. The word “audience” in the paragraph means ____. A.students B. people who watch a play C. people who act on the stage D. people who listen to something 常识 teacher-----students
﹡ ﹡2. When some kind of pain killer(止痛药） was brought out recently, researchers found that the colours turned the customers off because they made the product look weak and ineffective（无效的）. • The underlined part “the colours turned the customers off” means that the colours_______ • Attracted the customers strongly • Had weak effects on the customers • Tricked the customers into shopping • Caused the customers to lose interest D 因果关系 because
﹡3. Collins decided that she must go, although the hazards of the trip were many, for example, the unbearable heat , the possibility of getting lost , the presence of wild animals and poisonous snakes . “hazard” means ___________________ A. pleasure, B. problem, C. danger, D. attraction C 举例for example
﹡﹡﹡4.In a culture which values only the winner and pays no attention to the ordinary players, they strongly blame competition. Among the most vocal are youngsters who have suffered under competitive pressures from their parents or society • The underlined phrase “the most vocal” means______ • Those who try their best to win • Those who value competition most highly • Those who are against competition most strongly • Those who rely on others most for success C 上下文语境 context or related information
﹡﹡﹡5. Without examinations, employers will look for employees from the highly respected schools and from families known to them－a form of favoritismwill replace equality. The word “favoritism" is used to describe the phenomenon that ________. A. bright children also need certificates to get satisfying jobs B. children from well-respected schools tend to have good jobs C. poor children with certificates are favored in job markets D. children attending ordinary schools achieve great success 破折号（定义或同位语）
﹡6 . • Grown-ups also have a sense of object permanence. That is to say, if we put a box in a room and lock the door, the box will still be there when we come back. • “Object permanence” means that when out of sight, an object ______ • Still exists B. keeps its shape • C. Still stays solid D. is beyond reach 1.定义definition that is to say 也就是说 2.构词法 permanent— permanence A
﹡﹡7. A child's birthday party doesn't have to be a hassle; instead, it can be a basket of fun, according to Beth Anaclerio, an Evaston mother of two, ages 4 and 18 months. 比较comparison (instead—相反,反而) What does the underlined word "hassle“ probably mean? A. a party designed by specialists B. a plan requiring careful thought C. a situation causing difficulty or trouble D. a demand made by guests
8. William Shakespeare said. “The web of our life is of a mingled yarn（纱线），good and ill together.” The underlined word “mingled” most probably means . A．simple B．mixed C．sad D．happy B definition or explanation 定义或解释猜测词义
﹡9. The house looked quite normal outside, but inside it was very exoticwith fascinating objects on display. As he began putting them into his bag, a god came into the room. It stopped when it saw Buster, then wagged its tail madly and went over to him, licking his outstretched hand. “Good boy,” Buster whispered. “What a great guard dog you are --- trying to lick me to death.” Which of the definitions is closest in meaning to the word “exotic” ? A Messy and untidy. B. Rich and expensive. C. Comfortable and calming D. Unusual and foreign. 对比contrast normal—but---unusual
﹡﹡﹡10. Lions are opportunists. They prefer to eat without having to do too much work. When resting in the shade, they are also watching the sky to see what is flying by, and even in the heat of the day they will suddenly start up and run a mile across the plains to find out what is going on. If another animal has made a kill, they will drive it off and take the kill for themselves. By describing lions as “opportunists”, the author means to say that lions ____. A. are cruel animals B. are clever animals C. Like to take advantage of（利用） other animals D. Like to take every chance to eat 构词法及下文解释 opportunity---ist
Optional exercises （选做题）
11. He had been getting better but during the night his condition deteriorated. Get worse 12.The animal with the longevity is the giant land tortoise which can live several hundreds years. 长寿 13. They are vertebrates, that is, animals have backbones. 文中“vertebrates”的意思是____________ 脊椎动物
14. She did not hear what you said because she was completely engrossed in her reading. concentrate/focus her attention on 15. But sometimes，no rain falls for a long，long time. Then there is a dry period，or drought. A long period of shortage of rainfall
16. Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? co（共同的）---education---al 男女同校教育的 17. Those new comers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city. country
Ex2: … “The Dave you saw on TV was the real Dave,” says friend Pat Williams, “He wasn’t a great actor or a great speaker. He was just Joe Everybody.” 74. “He was just Joe Everybody.” ( in the last paragraph) means _____. A. Dave was famous B. Dave was ordinary C. Dave was showy D. Dave was shy
Ex3: And if you've gathered your friends around you to rebuild a happy family atmosphere(气氛), you may fear that saying no will bring back the kind of conflict you grew up with----or destroy the nice atmosphere you now enjoy • The underlined word "conflict" means _____. • dependent life • fierce fight • C. bad manners • D. painful feeling
Ex.4: Provide incentive. Tell your children the importance of saving. “For every dollar he or she agrees to save and invest rather than spend, you agree to add another dollar to the pot,” says Cathy Pareto, expert in money planning. The underlined word “incentive” in this paragraph means ______. A Honor B. praise C. excitement D. encouragement
Here is The Pines ,whose cook has developed a special way of mixing foreign food such as caribou ,wild boar ,and reindeer with surprising sauces . （2004年福建卷） • According to the passage ,The Pines is a . • A．place in which you can see many mobile homes • B．mountain where you can get a good view of the valley • C．town which happens to be near the Banff National Park • D．restaurant where you can ask for some special kinds of food
Ex.5: Those new comers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city. A. town B. capital C. country D. house the city
practice 1. Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? co---education---al 男女同校教育的 2.Marry Cassatt gave up her social position and all thought of a husband and a family ,which in those times was unthinkable for a young lady. un--think--able 不可思议的 3.Finally , renewable energy sources are used even though they are often expensive to develop. re---new----able 可更新的,可再生的
Practice • Mark Twain was not the author’s real name; it was a pseudonym. a pen name. 2. But sometimes，no rain falls for a long，long time. Then there is a dry period，or drought. A long period of shortage of rainfall
The house stood at the end of a quiet neat street. The little dwelling,however,looked neglected and cheerless.