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TURKEY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TURKEY. Geography.

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  • The Republic of Turkey is located in South Eastern Europe (the area west of the Bosporus) and South Western Asia. Turkey is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, the Aegean Sea, Greece, Bulgaria, the Black Sea, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq and Syria.Ankara is the capital city. Istanbul is Turkey's largest city and largest port. Other cities include Adana, Bursa and Izmir.Turkey can be divided into seven geographical regions: the Mediterranean Region, Aegean Region, Marmara Region, Black Sea Region, Central Anatolia Region, Eastern Anatolia Region and the South Eastern Anatolia Region.The terrain is mountainous with a central plateau and a narrow coastal plain. Rivers include the Euphrates, Kizilirmak, Sakarya, Tigris and Yesilirmak.Turkey's weather varies according to region but is generally hot and dry in the summer and cold in the winters.
  • Turkey's environment is very diverse consisting of mountains, valleys, plains, beaches, rivers and lakes; just over a quarter of the country is covered with forests and woodlands.There are over twenty National Parks and a number of Nature Reserves. The Society for the Protection of Nature, an independent organisation, is concerned with conserving Turkey's coasts and marine life, freshwater systems, wetlands and forests. Nine sites in Turkey are on the Ramsar list of Wetlands of International Importance.Birds found in the conservation areas include cranes, ducks, geese, gulls, herons and flamingoes. Wild animals living in Turkey are boar, deer, wild goats, mouflon (wild sheep), wolves and wildcats.
  • Turkey has a very rich architectural heritage. Among its monuments are examples of Greek (333-30 BC), Roman (30 BC-395 AD), Byzantine (330-1453 AD) and Ottoman (1299-1923) architecture.Ephesus is Turkey's best preserved classical city. It is the site of the Ancient Greek Temple of Artemis, one of the Wonders of the Ancient World.With the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire made Constantinople (Istanbul) its capital (1453). The Ottomans converted many of the Christian churches into mosques, including the church of St Sophia (Hagia Sophia) built by the Emperor Constantine.Chinli Kiosk in Istanbul's Topkapi Palace, built in 1473, was a great influence on Ottoman architecture. Ottoman architects designed baths, libraries, mansions, mosques, palaces, schools, aqueducts and bridges. Mimar Sinan, the Chief Architect to the Sultans (1538-1588) designed over three hundred and thirty buildings. Sinan designed the Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul.The Ottomans were also responsible for many mosques and buildings throughout their Empire in Africa, Asia and Europe.
  • The population of the Republic of Turkey was 70,413,958 in 2006. Eighty percent of the population is Turkish and twenty percent of the population is Kurdish.
  • Turkish is the official language. Other languages spoken include Kurdish, Zaza, Arabic, Armenian and Greek.
  • Almost all of the Turkish population is Muslim; mostly Sunni Muslim. There is a small minority of Christians and Jews.
  • Turkish cuisine is a combination of Middle Eastern food (kebabs, pitta bread and houmous) and Mediterranean food, (tomatoes, garlic, olive oil, and grilled meat). Hot peppers, mint, parsley, dill, cumin, and yoghurt are important ingredients in Turkish cuisine. Bread is part of the Turkish daily diet.A "meze" consisting of a number of small dishes may be served before the main course of a meal. These include slices of melon, feta cheese, pickles, nuts and small portions of fish, salads and vegetables.Soups, rice and wheat dishes, meats and seafood are prepared with vegetables such as aubergines, artichokes, beans, beetroot, chard, chick peas, cucumbers, mushrooms, onions, peppers and spinach. Stuffed vegetables, meatballs and egg dishes are popular. The kebab, marinated lamb roasted on a spit, is a Turkish favourite.Milk puddings flavoured with orange, lemon or rose water are popular desserts. Other sweet courses include fresh and stewed fruit: apples, apricots, cherries, figs, melons, peaches, quince and tangerines.Raki, an anise flavoured spirit, is the national drink. "Boza", another traditional alcoholic drink is made from fermented wheat berries. Beer, wines and fruit juices are produced. Turkish coffee is thick and black and tea is prepared over boiling water and served in small glasses.
  • Turkey has been the home of many civilisations. Ancient people who lived in the area include the Hittites of Hattusha, Phrygians and Lydians. The Persians ruled between 545-383 BC, followed by the Greeks (333-30BC) and the Romans (30BC-395 AD).In 330 AD the Roman Emperor Constantine moved his capital to Byzantium, a Greek city, dividing the Roman Empire into two. Byzantium was renamed Constantinople becoming the capital of the Christian Empire. The Byzantine Empire lasted until 1453.In the eleventh century Seljuk Turks from Central Asia migrated to Turkey (Anatolia). Their most famous leader, Osman (1259 - 1326), founded the Osmanli or Ottoman dynasty. The Ottoman Empire superseded the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople became Istanbul. With the change in name came a change in religion and the centre of Christianity became Islamic.The Ottoman Empire lasted until 1923. During this time the Empire ruled parts of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Europe. Countries under its control included Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Tunisia, (Africa), Cyprus, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen (Middle East), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, (Asia), Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia (Europe).