The beginnings of Research • Started in the late 18th century • during the middle ages (dark ages) sources of knowledge came from: • Pope/Priest • tradition • knowledge of the heart • knowledge of the body - rational thinking
Magicians • observation • philosophers • scientists • scientific knowledge based on natural sciences - that is man in relation to environment
In the hospitality/tourism industry research focuses on: • social science • natural science • non-science (religious) • pseudo-science (palmestry) • horoscope (faith)
Assumptions • Classical theory - people are working because of pay • Systems theory - people are happy working not only because of pay but the treatment they get from the management • Cultural theory
Theories have models, proponents, strengths and weaknesses • knowledge builds up theories • Data is collected in order to: • describe • analyze • predict • control
Research requires... • TIME • TALENT • ATTITUDES • MONEY
Overview of Tourism Research • It allows you to find out attributes of your visitors including: • origin, age, education, income and spending habits, travel patterns, lifestyles and values, activity preferences • It gives you an understanding on: • what they like and dislike about a destination,
How much they think a certain travel experience is worth, • the sources they use for travel information • their impression of your advertising messages • how satisfied they were in their visit.
TYPES OF TOURISM RESEARCH • Visitor Profile Studies - demographics • Satisfaction - measure the quality of service provided at a business or a destination • Economic Impact - determine what new money is brought into the community from tourism
Images - determines the perception on the destination by visitors or non- visitors • Information - determines where and how consumers search for travel information • Inquiry Conversion - determines how many people actually traveled to a destination versus how many people inquired about the destination
Market share - measures the percentage of the market one holds - of the total available market ( arrivals - national, regional, local) • Carrying Capacity - study the feasibility of tourism activity in a certain area (events to be hosted)
Research Objectives and Research Types • Exploratory Research • to become familiar with the basic facts, people and concerns involved in... • To develop a well-grounded mental picture of what is occurring in... • To generate many ideas and develop hypotheses on...
To determine the feasibility of doing additional research on... • To formulate questions/refine issues for more systematic inquiry on... • To develop techniques and a sense of direction for future research on...
Descriptive Research • To provide an accurate profile of a group • to describe a process, mechanism or relationship • to give a verbal or numerical picture of... • To find information to stimulate new explanations... • To present basic background information or a context
To create set of categories or type of classification • to clarify a sequence, set of stages or steps • to document information that contradicts prior beliefs about a subject
Explanatory Research • To determine the accuracy of a principle theory • to find out which competing explanation is better • to advance knowledge about an underlying process • to link different issues or topics under a common general statement
To build or elaborate a theory so it becomes more complete • to extend a theory or principle into new areas or issues • to provide evidence to support or refute an explanation
Methodology • What design? • descriptive • exploratory • explanatory
What technique? • Case study • experiment • survey
Who will be your respondents? • Purposive • non-purposive
What tools to be used? • How will you analyze the data?
Importance of Topic Selection • Approach it with caution • Most important consideration in selecting a topic is to make sure it is the one that you will enjoy working with
Problems usually encountered in topic selection • Inability to narrow their topic so that it could be fully treated within a reasonable period of time, • Finding a research question that is neither too broad nor too narrow
POINTERS • Target audience - (population) those people who will be surveyed/those about whom the study is conducted • Population must be of reasonable size • Good thesis question must be researchable
Key words must be clearly defined • Ideally, research question will have few variables • Reasonable in breadth and in depth • Consider the target audience
Write with precision and clarity definition section will help in clarifying words you use, but key words need to be as simple as possible. • Develop a plan for writing the thesis. Make a timetable to guide you in meeting the deadline
Deadline will assist you in moving from one task to the next until the thesis is completed • keeping note cards in chapter 2 is beneficial • library hours is required
Research Questions • Should relate to aspects of the industry with which you are a part • The end result of your research needs to be contribution to the industry
Make sure that your research question is not a duplication of research that has been done already • Select questions that are doable • Is there a substantial body of literature relating to the research question
Basis for choosing research question • your interest in the question • the practicality of undertaking research on the question • availability of a target population with which to work • doability of the thesis