History of political thoughts of Kazakhstan Lecture 3+4
Brief contents: • 1.Political views of Medieval time. • 2. Political views of Kazakh educators’ in ХІХ century. • 3. Political idea of Kazakhstan in the beginning of XX century.
1.Political views of Medieval time. The contemporaneous political science of Kazakhstan has the historical roots. In the Midvale Ages its sources were the Arabic philosophy, based on the antic knowledge, and the traditional outlook of Kazakhs, where were reflected a type of state system, social life and interrelations of a person and a society. A national tradition has formed a special model of a power relation’s legalization during the becoming Kazakh khanate.
He is one of the first philosophers define subject and tasks of political science. Political science studies:
Work of Al-Farabi: He best known Arabic source for al-Farabi's political philosophy is (al-Madina al-fadila)“Virtuous city-state”. His ideal virtuous city, which gives its name to the whole volume, is that which wholeheartedly embraces the pursuit of goodness and happiness and where the virtues will clearly abound. This virtuous city is compared in its function to the limbs of a perfectly healthy body.
Necessary conditions for achievement happiness are forming political organization of society, skillful government and moral temper of ruler. • Virtuous city is city of the best social organization, which provides achievement of happiness with educated ruler. People of such city-state must strive for education, establishment virtuous, moral interrelation each other.
was the first Kazakh scientist, traveler, member the Russian Geographical Society. He had one of leading places among investigators of the modern Kazakh national culture. 2. Political views of Kazakh educators’in ХІХ century. Shokan Ualikhanov (1835-1865)
On the analyze of political situation in the region has he analyzed the follows: tribe and class division, social-economical situation, tax system, the methods of administrative government, the foreign relations etc. However, a priority of a study was the leader’s ambitions of the political groups and the local rulers.
Work of S.Ualikhanov : He is author of “Notices about a judicial reform” . Ualikhanov was as a liberal reformer and an opponent a violent revolutionary reform. Democratic ideas of Ualikhanovwas reflected a protection of Kazakhs interests, he called to knowledge and observation the public interests during reforming. Ualikhanovsuggested keeping judge of biys as one from the forms of a local self-government, and limit power of mull and change tax system.
He is thinker, great philosopher and akhyn (poet) is a remarkable and unique handiwork of the Kazakh reality. AbaiKunanbayev (1845-1904)
Work of AbaiKunanbaev: He shared with his thoughts, reflections and emotional experiences in prosaic narrations "Kharasoz". The remarkable work of Abai "Ghakhiliya" - “Words of edification" were written during about ten years (1890-1898).
The main feature of any public activities and government was humanistic principals by Abai. The ideal of Abai was educated, independent and active person. • Therefore he considered, need to get over conservatism, dogmatism, uneducated. The modern order should be based on the traditions, the ancient values, and moral norms. Abai saw the future of his people in education.