Unit I: Nutrition and Diet Therapy Allied Health II
Fundamentals of Nutrition • Nutrition: those processes that allow the body to use food for energy, maintenance of health, and growth. • Nutritional status: the state of one’s nutrition • Wellness: state of good health with optimal body function (requires good nutrition)
Fundamentals Of Nutrition Cont. Nutrition plays a large role in determining: • Height • Weight • Strength • Skeletal and muscle development • Physical ability • Resistance to disease • Appetite • Posture • Complexion • Mental ability • Emotional and psychological health
Fundamentals of Nutrition… Immediate effects of good nutrition include: * Healthy appearance * Good attitude * Proper sleep and bowel habits * Enthusiasm * Freedom from anxiety
Essential Nutrients • Composed of chemical elements found in food • Used by the body to perform body functions • Nutrients in food replace those used by the body • Essential nutrients divided into six groups
Carbohydrates • Major source of human energy • Simple carbs dissolve readily in • cold water • Complex carbs don’t dissolve readily and aren’t “sweet” (oats, barley, starches) • Main sources: bread, cereals, pasta, crackers, potatoes, corn, peas, fruits, sugars and syrups • Cellulose: indigestible carbohydrates, provides bulk (bran, whole-grain cereal, fibrous fruits and veggies)
Fats • Concentrated form of energy – twice as many calories as the same amt of carbs / protein • Help cushion organs and bones • Aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins • Provide flavor to meals • Main sources: butter, margarine, oils, creams, fatty meats, cheeses, and egg yolk • Classified as saturated or polyunsaturated • Cholesterol- fatty substance found in body cells and animal fats-found in egg yolk, fatty meats, shellfish, butter, cream. Cheese, whole milk, and organ meats • Everyone needs some cholesterol - Excess cholesterol is believed to contribute to arteriosclerosis
Fats… • LDL – low density lipoproteins (bad)…carries fat to cells • HDL – high density lipoproteins (good)…carries excess fat from cells to liver to be broken down
Proteins • Build and repair body tissue • Provide heat and energy • Help produce antibodies • Made up of 22 amino acids (9 are essential – complete protein – body can’t create these…must get them from diet) • Main sources/complete proteins: meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs • Incomplete proteins: cereal, soybeans, dry beans, peas and peanuts • Body can’t store excess protein…excreted as urea
Vitamins • Organic compounds that are essential to life • Regulate body functions • Repair body tissue • Only a small amount required-well balanced diet provides required vitamins • Excess or deficiency can cause poor health • Water soluble (9) or fat soluble (A,D,E,K)
Minerals • Inorganic (nonliving) elements found in all body tissue • Regulate body functions • Build and repair body tissue • They include: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, iodine, fluorine and others
Water • Found in all body tissues • Essential for digestion • Makes up most of blood plasma • Helps body tissue absorb nutrients • Helps move waste material through body • Average person should drink 6-8 glasses of water a day • Only nutrient we sense a need for…thirst
Utilization of Nutrients • Digestion-breaks down the foods we eat 1. Mechanical or chemical 2. Peristalsis • Absorption-process of taking in nutrients by the body 1. Most absorption occurs in the small intestine 2. Water, salts, and some vitamins in large intestine
Utilization of Nutrients Cont. • Metabolism-use of nutrients by the body 1. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) • Measuring Food Energy 1. Calorie-the amount of heat produced during metabolism 2. Most people use an average of 3,500 calories per day 3. To lose weight, a person must take in fewer calories then are burned 4. To gain weight, a person must take in more calories then the person uses
Therapeutic Diets • Regular Diet • A balanced diet usually used for the ambulatory patient. • Foods such as rich desserts, cream sauces, salad dressings, and fried foods may be decreased or omitted.
Therapeutic Diets Cont. • Liquid diets • Include both clear and full liquids. • Foods included on the clear diet are mainly carbohydrates and water, including apple or grape juice, plain gelatin, ginger ale, and tea or coffee with sugar. • Foods included in the full liquid diet are strained soups, fruits and vegetable juices, ice cream, custard, pudding, and eggnog.
Therapeutic Diets Cont. • Soft diet • Foods must require little chewing and be easy to digest. • Foods to avoid are meat, shellfish, spicy foods, rich desserts, fried foods, nuts, and coconut.
Therapeutic Diets Cont. • Diabetic diet • Used for patients with diabetes mellitus. • The diet contains exchange list that group foods according to type, nutrients, and caloric contents. • Patients are allowed a certain number of items from each exchange list according to there individual needs.
Therapeutic Diets Cont. • Low-cholesterol diet • Foods high in saturated fat, such as beef, liver, pork, lamb, egg, yolk, cream cheese, natural cheeses, and whole milk are limited.
Therapeutic Diets Cont. • Fat-restricted diets • Also called lo-fat diets. • Examples to avoid include cream, whole milk, cheeses, fats, fatty meats, rich desserts, chocolate, nuts, coconuts, nuts, fried foods, and salad dressings.
Therapeutic Diets Cont. • Sodium-restricted diet • Patients should avoid or limit adding salt to food, smoked meats or fish, processed foods, pickles, olives, sauerkraut, and some processed cheeses.
Therapeutic Diets Cont. • Protein diet • Protein rich foods include meats, fish, milks, cheeses, and eggs.
Therapeutic Diets Cont. • Bland diet • Consist of easily digested foods that do not irritate the digestive tract. • Foods to be avoided include coarse foods, fried foods, highly seasoned foods, pastries, candies, raw fruits and vegetables, smoked and salted meats, whole grain breads, etc.
Therapeutic Diets Cont. • Low-residue diet • Eliminates or limits foods that are high in bulk and fiber. • Examples of such food include raw fruits and vegetables, whole-grain breads and cereals, nuts, seeds, beans, peas, coconut, and fried food.