PROTEINS • Proteins: are the “building blocks” of the body and provide required nutritive elements. All proteins are composed of amino acids, which are necessary for repair, growth and body development. • Essential Amino Acids: of the 20 amino acids our bodies can produce all but nine (9). These 9 are the essential amino acids we must get from food. • Each gram of protein yields 4 calories in the process of metabolism. • The normal daily intake for adults should be 0.8 g/kg or 2.2lbs of body weight.
PROTEINS CONT’D • Pregnant women require an additional 10 grams of protein a day over the normal daily intake.
FATS • The function of fat is to supply energy and transport fat soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. Fat also serves as padding for the internal organs and helps conserve body heat. However, a high fat diet, especially saturated fat and cholesterol may lead to arteriosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and/or obesity. • A person over the age of 30 should have a serum cholesterol level of less than 200mg/dl. Each gram of fat yields 9 calories. Butter, margarine, cream cheese, egg yolks, whole milk, avocados, olives, nuts, various baked goods, and vegetable oils are all sources of dietary fat.
CARBOHYDRATES & MINERALS • “CARBS” (sugars & starches) are the most efficient sources of energy and are known as the “fuel of life”. • COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES (starches): are found in breads, cereals, pasta, rice dry beans/peas, potatoes and corn. • SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES (sugars): are found in sugars, honey, syrup, jam, and other deserts. • Carbs must be reduced to glucose before the body can use them. They are stored in the muscles for movement and in the liver as glycogen, which is broken down as needed by the body. Carbs that aren’t used for energy purposes are changed and stored as adipose tissue (FAT). This is why PT is
CARBOHYDRATES & MINERALS CONT’D • VERY IMPORTANT! • MINERALS: minerals have a physiological influence on the function of body tissues. Of the 11 major minerals, those considered the most important are calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc and magnesium. All of which must be consumed in a sufficient amount to satisfactorily meet the body’s requirements.
MINERAL ELEMENTS IN NUTRITION • Element: IODINE • Source: Seafood & salt • Function: normal function of Thyroid • E: SODIUM • S: table salt, seafood, processed foods and animal products • F: regulates osmotic pressure, pH balance and heartbeat E: POTASSIUM S: Avocados, bananas, oranges, tea, milk, molasses and meat F: A constituent of all cells. E: MAGNESIUM S: nuts, whole-grain cereals, and veggies F: maintains mineral balance
MINERAL ELEMENTS IN NUTRITION CONT’D • E: MAGNESIUM • S: nuts, whole-grain cereals, and veggies • F: maintains mineral balance • E: CALCIUM • S: milk, yogurt, cheese, molasses, sardines andsalmon • F: assists in blood coagulation, constituent of bones and teeth • E: PHOSPHORUS • S: milk, poultry, fish, meats, cheese, nuts & cereal • F: aids in metabolizing organic foodstuffs • E: IRON • S: liver, egg yolks, oyster, fortified grains, dried fruit • F: transports oxygen throughout the body, constituent of blood
MINERAL ELEMENTS IN NUTRITION CONT’D • E: CHLORINE • S: table salt, animal products • F: constituent of gastric acid • E: SULPHUR • S: protein foods • F: promotes hair and nail growth • E: COPPER • S: liver, kidney, nuts, some shellfish, raisins • F: aids in use of iron in hemoglobin synthesis • E: ZINC • F: meat, liver, eggs, oysters, milk and whole grains • S: regulates taste acuity and appetite, constituent of enzymes
VITAMINS • Vitamin A: forms and maintains healthy skin, hair and mucous membranes. It’s also needed for proper bone growth , tooth development and reproduction. • Vitamin D: promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and is required for the formation of healthy bones and teeth. • Vitamin E: protects essential fatty acids from oxidation in the body cells and prevents breakdown of body tissues. • Vitamin K: promotes normal clotting of the blood and maintains normal liver functions • Vitamin C: (ascorbic acid), maintains blood vessel strength, helps body resist upper respiratory infections and needed for proper development of teeth and gums
VITAMINS CONT’D • Vitamin B (complex): includes more than 12 separate B vitamins. Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pyridoxine (B6), and Cyanocobalamin (B12). Most of the B vitamins promote normal growth, healthy skin, iron metabolism and the maturation of red blood cells. • WATER: is known as the forgotten nutrient. Survival is possible for weeks without food, but only days without water. Water makes up 70 percent of body weight. It is the medium in which nutrients are transported from the digestive tract to the cells where the are needed.
Fats, oils and sweets should be used sparingly. You should have 2-3 servings of dairy and meat/beans. 3-5 servings of the vegetable group is recommended. 2-4 servings of the fruit group is recommended. 6-11 servings of the bread and cereal group is also advised. THE FOOD PYRAMID
DIET THERAPY • The objectives of diet therapy are: • * to increase or decrease body weight • * to rest a particular organ • * to adjust the diet to the body’s ability to use certain foods • * to produce a specific effect as a remedy (e.g. regulation of blood sugar in diabetes) • * to overcome deficiencies by the addition of food rich in some necessary element. (e.g. supplementing the diet with iron in treating anemia) • * to provide ease of digestion by omitting irritating substances, such as fiber, spices or high-fat foods.
TYPES OF DIETS • REGULAR DIETS: composed of all types of foods and is well balanced and maintains a state of good nutrition. • SOFT DIETS: soft in texture, consists of liquids and semi-solid foods. It’s indicated in certain postoperative cases and gastrointestinal disorders. • LIQUID DIETS: foods that are in a liquid state. For post-op cases, and inflammatory conditions of the GI tract. • a.) clear liquid diet- clear broth, coffee, tea, gelatin, fruit juices and fruit drinks
TYPES OF DIETS CONT’D • b.) full liquid diet- includes all liquids served on a clear liquid with the addition of strained creamed soups, milk, ice cream and puddings • c.) dental liquid diet- includes regular foods blended and strained in liquid form and all foods allowed on clear and full liquid diets. • HIGH-CALORIE DIET: a high calorie diet is indicated for malnourished, underweight and burn patients. • HIGH-PROTEIN DIET: indicated in almost all illnesses such as nephrosis, cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis, burns, radiation injury and fractures.
TYPES OF DIETS CONT’D • LOW CALORIE DIET: used in the treatment of obesity, but may be used to control weight in medical conditions such as diabetes, hypothyroidism and arthritis. • LOW PROTEIN DIET: consists largely of carbs and fats, hence the term “low protein”. This is used in renal and kidney diseases. • HIGH-RESIDUE DIET: consists of fiber based foods, such as whole-grain breads and cereals. this diet is indicated in atonic constipation, spastic colon, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticulosis.
TYPES OF DIETS CONT’D • LOW RESIDUE DIET: is indicated in ulceration, inflammation, and other gastric disorders. The purpose of this diet is to provide non-stimulating, non-irritating, and easily digested material that leaves little residue. • LOW SODIUM DIET: food containing very small amounts of sodium. This diet is indicated when edema is present, in renal disease, hypertension and certain cardiac conditions. • BLAND DIET: bland diets have traditionally been used for patients with chronic ulcer disease.
TYPES OF DIET CONT’D • LOW CARB, HIGH PROTEIN DIET: used in the treatment of hypoglycemia. This diet limits simple carbohydrates that are quickly absorbed into the blood. • THE END>