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Key Conflicts at the Constitutional Convention
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  1. Key Conflicts at the Constitutional Convention CENTRAL GOV’T vs. STRONG STATES • Authority derives from the people • In a new plan of government, the central government should be stronger than the states. • Authority derives from the people • In a new plan of government, the state governments should be stronger than the central.

  2. LARGE STATES vs. SMALL STATES • Congress should be composed of two houses. • Number of delegates to both houses of Congress should be assigned according to population. • Congress of one house should be preserved. • Each state should have one vote. NORTH vs. SOUTH • Slaves should not be counted when deciding the number of congressional delegates. • Slaves should be counted when levying taxes. • Slaves should be counted when determining .congressional representation. • Slaves should not be counted when levying taxes.

  3. Problem #1: What form of Democracy? Vote on Laws Vote on Laws direct democracy representative democracy

  4. Two Plans for Government Proposed Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan (proposed by James Madison) (proposed by William Paterson) Bi-Cameral (TWO HOUSE) Legislature Number of representatives based on the population of the state Uni-Cameral (SINGLE HOUSE) Legislature Number of representatives equal for each state

  5. Solution: The Great Compromise Solution: The Great Compromise Senate House of Representatives Equal representation: Two representatives for each state (New Jersey’s Plan) Senators Representation based on population of the state (Virginia’s Plan) Representatives CONGRESS

  6. Problem # 2: Slavery

  7. Different Viewpoints on Slavery Different Viewpoints on Slavery 1) Southern states (like VIRGINIA ) wanted the enslaved population to count toward their total population because it would give them a _______ population and get them _________________ in Congress. More representatives meant more _____________ !!!! 2) However, _____________ states (like Massachusetts) DID NOT want the enslaved population to count toward population because then the ____________states would get more ________________ than the people in the northern states. Fewer representatives meant __________ power!!!

  8. Different Viewpoints on Slavery 1) Those southern states (like VIRGINIA ) wanted the enslaved population to count toward their total population because it would give them a _larger___ population and get them _more representatives_ in Congress. More representatives meant more __power___________!! 2) However, __northern____ states (like Massachusetts) DID NOT want the enslaved population to count toward population because then the southern___ states would get more _____representatives____ than the people in the northern states. Fewer representatives meant __less_____ power!!

  9. Solution: 3/5 Compromise The northern states and southern states agreed that they would count ___3/5__ of the enslaved population toward the total population. 1 1 1 1 1 50,000 slaves count as 30,000 HOWEVER, enslaved people were NOT allowed to VOTE nor did they have any say whatsoever in the United States government.

  10. Branches of Government

  11. Forging a New Nation The Six Basic Principles of the Constitution of the United States Six Basic Principles of the U.S. Constitution

  12. 1) Popular Sovereignty popular sovereignty Power to the People!!

  13. 2) Limited Government What we say goes! Reserved powers are RESERVED for the state (i.e: education!).Delegated Powers are DELEGATED to the federal government (i.e. the power to declare war).

  14. 3) Separation of Powers These branches would all have their own area of authority Executive Branch Judicial Branch Legislative Branch

  15. 4) Checks and Balances Checks and balances give each Branch the opportunity to “check” or stop another branch

  16. Examples of Checks and Balances appoint 1. The president gets to ________________ justices, BUT the Senate gets to ________________, or reject, the appointments. veto

  17. = Examples of Checks and Balances treaties 2. The president signs _____________ with other nations, BUT the Senate can either __________________(approve) or reject the treaties. ratify

  18. Examples of Checks and Balances 3. The Congress writes new laws, BUT the ___________________ gets to __________ or ____________, the law. If the president vetoes the law, Congress can still ___________ his/her veto with 2/3 vote of each house. Furthermore, the ___________ ________________ gets to decide if the laws are _____________ or unconstitutional. president approve veto override judicial branch constitutional

  19. Examples of Checks and Balances chief 4. The president is the _________ and __________ of the military, BUT only Congress can ___________ _____________. commander declare war

  20. 5) Judicial Review That is UNCONSTITUTIONAL! The president can appoint Supreme Court judges. These judges have the authority to review federal and state cases and interpret the Constitution. This has resulted in landmark cases that have prompted amendments to the constitution.

  21. 6) Federalism

  22. Compare this part of the first draft with the equivalent sections in the final copy printed on page 146 of your textbook. Discuss the major changes that were made in the document in only about five weeks time. • Major Differences: • -The Preamble in the final copy is much more detailed and concrete; • The concept of “the United States of America” is assumed rather than stated in the first draft • The articles in the final copy are much longer, more explicit, and more detailed than in the first draft.

  23. What change in the government was emphasized when “We the people of the United States” replaced the listing of the individual states in the Preamble? Why do you think this wording was so important at the time?

  24. The Preamble of the US Constitution: ___ 1. “In order to form a more perfect union” ___ 2. “To establish justice” ___ 3. “To insure domestic tranquility” ___ 4. “To provide for the common defense” ___ 5. “To promote the general welfare” ___ 6. “To secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity” A. to prevent states from fighting with one another B. to make sure that future generations will have the same rights and freedoms we enjoy C. to make the institutions that will guarantee fairness D. to provide basic human services (education, healthcare, etc.) E. to create armed forces F. to unite the government more than the Articles of Confederation

  25. The Three Branches of the United States Government

  26. The Executive Branch • It is in the executive branch that our nation’s most powerful leader resides • In addition to the president there is also the presidential cabinet. A group of presidential advisors not mentioned in the original constitution, but implemented by George Washington. • Today we will examine presidential powers, current members, and the electoral college

  27. Electing the President But how is the president really elected?? There is a lot of encouragement for young people like you to get out and VOTE! MTV ran the campaign Choose or Lose, and many high profile musicians sponsored VOTE or DIE. Either way the message was clear… GET out on voting day and have your vote heard!!

  28. BACK The Electoral College The Electoral College is the name for the group of people who choose the president and vice president of the United States. This group is made up of electors from the separate states who are selected by the voters in presidential elections. Each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the total number of senators and representatives it sends to the Congress of United States. Thus, each state has at least three electors. (Washington D.C. also has three electors) 12 2 14 New Jersey: _____Representatives + __ Senators = ___ Electors

  29. Here is the electoral map from your worksheet. We will refer to it as we do some practice exercises to discovery how the electoral college works.

  30. Winner-Take-All System New Jersey Votes in Election #1 New Jersey Votes in Election #2 Candidate B gets ALL 15 Votes Candidate A gets ALL 15 Votes Critics of the Electoral College argue that it is not fair that the winner of the popular vote gets ALL of the electoral votes. What do you think?

  31. Possible Results in a Presidential Election National Totals for Presidential Election #1: B B B Who wins the Popular Vote? ______ the Electoral Vote?______ the Election?_______ National Totals for Presidential Election #2: A A A Who wins the Popular Vote? ______ the Electoral Vote?______ the Election?_______

  32. Three Presidential Elections Reveal a Glitch in the System Election of 1876 Uh-oh! Election of 1888 Election of 2000

  33. DO NOW:For each problem below determine which cabinet member would advise the president on what to do. Research shows that most fifth graders are not doing well on national tests. There is not enough affordable housing in U.S. cities. National unemployment is on the rise. The number of accidents on U.S. highways are increasing. Yosemite National Park has a problem with bear overpopulation. The twenty-dollar bill is too easy for counterfeiters to replicate. Word Bank: Department of State Department of Homeland Security Department of Treasury Department of Interior Department of Housing Department of Education Department of Commerce Department of Transportation Department of Labor

  34. DO NOW: For each problem below determine which cabinet member would advise the president on what to do. Research shows that most fifth graders are not doing well on national tests. There is not enough affordable housing in U.S. cities. National unemployment is on the rise. The number of accidents on U.S. highways are increasing. Yosemite National Park has a problem with bear overpopulation. The twenty-dollar bill is too easy for counterfeiters to replicate. Word Bank: Department of State Department of Homeland Security Department of Treasury Department of Interior Department of Housing Department of Education Department of Commerce Department of Transportation Department of Labor

  35. DO NOW: For each problem below determine which cabinet member would advise the president on what to do. Research shows that most fifth graders are not doing well on national tests. There is not enough affordable housing in U.S. cities. National unemployment is on the rise. The number of accidents on U.S. highways are increasing. Yosemite National Park has a problem with bear overpopulation. The twenty-dollar bill is too easy for counterfeiters to replicate. Word Bank: Department of State Department of Homeland Security Department of Treasury Department of Interior Department of Housing Department of Education Department of Commerce Department of Transportation Department of Labor

  36. DO NOW: For each problem below determine which cabinet member would advise the president on what to do. Research shows that most fifth graders are not doing well on national tests. There is not enough affordable housing in U.S. cities. National unemployment is on the rise. The number of accidents on U.S. highways are increasing. Yosemite National Park has a problem with bear overpopulation. The twenty-dollar bill is too easy for counterfeiters to replicate. Word Bank: Department of State Department of Homeland Security Department of Treasury Department of Interior Department of Housing Department of Education Department of Commerce Department of Transportation Department of Labor

  37. DO NOW: For each problem below determine which cabinet member would advise the president on what to do. Research shows that most fifth graders are not doing well on national tests. There is not enough affordable housing in U.S. cities. National unemployment is on the rise. The number of accidents on U.S. highways are increasing. Yosemite National Park has a problem with bear overpopulation. The twenty-dollar bill is too easy for counterfeiters to replicate. Word Bank: Department of State Department of Homeland Security Department of Treasury Department of Interior Department of Housing Department of Education Department of Commerce Department of Transportation Department of Labor

  38. DO NOW: For each problem below determine which cabinet member would advise the president on what to do. Research shows that most fifth graders are not doing well on national tests. There is not enough affordable housing in U.S. cities. National unemployment is on the rise. The number of accidents on U.S. highways are increasing. Yosemite National Park has a problem with bear overpopulation. The twenty-dollar bill is too easy for counterfeiters to replicate. Word Bank: Department of State Department of Homeland Security Department of Treasury Department of Interior Department of Housing Department of Education Department of Commerce Department of Transportation Department of Labor

  39. DO NOW: For each problem below determine which cabinet member would advise the president on what to do. Research shows that most fifth graders are not doing well on national tests. There is not enough affordable housing in U.S. cities. National unemployment is on the rise. The number of accidents on U.S. highways are increasing. Yosemite National Park has a problem with bear overpopulation. The twenty-dollar bill is too easy for counterfeiters to replicate. Word Bank: Department of State Department of Homeland Security Department of Treasury Department of Interior Department of Housing Department of Education Department of Commerce Department of Transportation Department of Labor

  40. Review!

  41. How do you calculate how many electors each state gets? #of house reps+ #of senate reps For example: In New Jersey there are 12 Representatives and 2 Senators, giving a total of 15 representatives

  42. What does the Executive Branch consist of? The President, Vice President, EOP, Cabinet, and various groups The EOP is the Executive offices of the President established by FDR in 1939 in the WEST WING of the White HOUSE. This focuses on communication (Press Secretary)

  43. The winner of the popular vote is always elected president.

  44. In 2000 George W. Bush won the electoral college, but not the popular vote.

  45. Match the following terms: Appointing Justices Executive Orders Negotiating Treaties Enforcing laws Commander in Chief Military Diplomatic Judicial Executive Legislative

  46. Done with Review!

  47. The Legislative Branch “All legislative Powers … shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives”