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Context-aware Services in Ubiquitous Network. Chiung-Ying Wang. Agenda. Introduction Pervasive Computing Context-aware Context-aware Service Ubiquitous Phone System (UPS) Context-aware Path Planning (UbiPaPaGo) Conclusion. Introduction.

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agenda
Agenda
  • Introduction
    • Pervasive Computing
    • Context-aware
  • Context-aware Service
    • Ubiquitous Phone System (UPS)
    • Context-aware Path Planning (UbiPaPaGo)
  • Conclusion
introduction
Introduction
  • With the advancement of technology and the rapid development of mobile device, we are entering the ubiquitous computing (UbiCom) era advocated by Mark Weiser
  • A ubiquitous network aims to provide users intelligent human-centric context-aware services at anytime anywhere.
  • Context-aware is the key feature for human-centered services as it enables services adaptive to human needs.
pervasive computing
Pervasive Computing
  • Mark Weiser’s[1] 1991 paper that described his vision of ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) , now also called pervasive computing
    • Ubiquitous computing is the method of enhancing computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user
  • Ubiquitous environment
    • Full of smart equipments and context-aware information
    • Invisible computing

[1] M. Weiser, “The Computer for the Twenty-First Century,” Scientific American, pp. 94-104, September 1991

pervasive computing cont
Pervasive Computing (Cont.)
  • Smart space
    • Various interconnected devices
      • Wearable and embedded computer, Smart phone, PDA, Notebook, PC, Server
    • Various connectives
      • Peer-to-peer, client-server, MANET, WLAN, 3G and 4G
  • Seamless integration of networking and computing capabilities within human environments
  • Pervasive computing is about making our lives simpler
ubiquitous environment
Ubiquitous Environment

GPS Receiver

RFID Tag

GPS Satellite

APsignal

GPSinformation

Wireless AP

AP

signal

Internet

GSM / 3Gsignal

GSM / 3Gsignal

GPS

information

Servers

RFIDinformation

3G Base Station

RFID資訊

RFID Antenna

ubiquitous environment1
Ubiquitous Environment

GPS Satellite

Servers

APsignal

GPSinformation

Wireless AP

AP

signal

Internet

GSM / 3Gsignal

Network

Status

GPS

information

GSM / 3Gsignal

RFIDinformation

Location

information

Agents

3G Base Station

RFID資訊

RFID Antenna

scenario 1
Scenario-1
  • 五月天的下午,開著冷氣您乘坐在舒適豪華的Jaguar愛車裡,優雅舒適地徜徉於信義計劃區網狀的市區道路中,意氣風發的您不必為了惱人的單向、雙向行車問題而迷路或為了工作分派的問題而煩惱,因為您的車載電腦更勝於您美麗的女助理。“哈囉”,隨著熟悉的聲音,它提示您:30分鐘後您在台北101世界超高摩天大樓將有一個約會,並顯示從目前位置前往的路線圖,車程時間為20分鐘。您告訴它說“瞭解”,並結束對話。
  • “哈囉”,它又提醒您,走另一條路,車程可能會多個10分鐘,但您可以順道買一杯您喜歡的StarBuck拿鐵咖啡。“謝謝您”,您爽朗的回答,您喜歡這個超人性化的提議。但您可能會因此而遲到,怎麼辦呢?不用擔心,它(您的夥計)早就為老哥您設想週到地送出一個簡訊給您的約會對象,您可以從容不迫地到達目的地就好!不必為了些微的耽擱而焦慮。畢竟,台北市長曾說過:行車安全最重要的啦!
scenario 2
Scenario-2
  • 一大早,電腦會知道你起床了,於是啟動咖啡機
  • 你一進入浴室,蓮蓬頭就自動開啟,調到你最喜歡的水溫
  • 等你開始走下樓,事先裝好土司的烤麵包機就開始加熱,把早餐依你喜歡的方式煮好
  • 打開冰箱,機器會提醒你,沒有牛奶了,而且罐子裡的涼拌包心菜絲已經過期,應該扔掉了

http://h50007.www5.hp.com/enterprise/member/info/0403_rfid/rfid01-02.asp

pervasive computing cont1
Pervasive Computing (Cont.)
  • How to access information?

Computer-centric

Human-centric

Context-aware

context aware
Context-aware
  • Context-aware means that one is able to use context information
  • A system is context-aware if it can extract, interpret and use context information and adapt its functionality to the current context of use
  • Definition of context:
    • Context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity
    • An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and application themselves

Context-Aware Applications Survey: http://users.tkk.fi/~mkorkeaa/doc/context-aware.html

example of context
Example of Context
  • identity
  • spatial information - e.g. location, orientation, speed, and acceleration
  • temporal information - e.g. time of the day, date, and season of the year
  • environmental information - e.g. temperature, air quality, and light or noise level
  • social situation - e.g. who you are with, and people that are nearby
  • resources that are nearby - e.g. accessible devices, and hosts
  • availability of resources - e.g. battery, display, network, and bandwidth
  • physiological measurements - e.g. blood pressure, hart rate, respiration rate, muscle activity, and tone of voice
  • activity - e.g. talking, reading, walking, and running
  • schedules and agendas
agenda1
Agenda
  • Introduction
    • Pervasive Computing
    • Context-aware
  • Context-aware Service
    • Ubiquitous Phone System (UPS)
    • Context-aware Path Planning (UbiPaPaGo)
  • Conclusion
motivation
Motivation

Dual-mode feature-rich business smart phone has more and more popular.

Besides tri-band UMTS/HSDPA and quad-band GPRS/EDGE/GSM, most of these smart phones also support WiFi, Bluetooth, and GPS connectivity.

However, use of these feature-rich smart phones still relies on users’ attention with complicated configuration, either priori or on-demand.

motivation cont
Motivation (Cont.)
  • For general naïve users, more intelligent, human-centered services and simplified user interfaces are expected
scenario
Scenario
  • 老闆突然有事要取消meeting,希望能自動撥號給實驗室任何一位研究生
    • 有空接聽電話的人
    • 費率最低
problem definition
Problem Definition
  • How to immediately achieve users’ requirements by context information
  • How to efficiently help users make explicit decisions from varieties of communication ways
  • How to help the caller contact with the callee whose personal smart device is out of use when emergency call is incoming
solution approach
Solution Approach

Use context digest model and inference model to achieve users’ requirements by context-awareness

Use inference model to explicitly connect the most adaptive communication way for users

Use social model to help the caller contact with the callee whose personal smart device is out of use

social network
Social Network
  • Small-world phenomenon
    • The six degrees of separation concept
  • Social network is defined as a social structure made of nodes which are generally people or groups
  • Social network can reflect the relation between two individuals
models
Models
  • Context Digest Model
    • Ontology tree
  • Inference Model
  • Social Model
context digest model
Context Digest Model

Context Digest Model

PersonalData

SensorData

StatusData

LocationData

StatusContext

LocationContext

ScheduleContext

Net. StatusContext

Context Information Management Module

Context Information

Context Acquisition Module

PersonalData

SensorData

StatusData

LocationData

Clients

context information
Context Information
  • Static context
    • Static context is the fundamental attribute
      • users’ profile and preference, device’s profile
  • Dynamic context
    • Dynamic context presents the instant information
      • user’s presence status and location
  • Auditing context
    • Auditing context is the statistical output by operating
      • phone call logs, location logs and event logs
inference model
Inference Model
  • Pre-define intelligent communication policies with SPARQL (recursively, SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language)
    • Event-oriented
    • Rule-based engine
  • Reach personalized service by the preference setting of users
social model 1 2
Social Model (1/2)

,

  • Social model is designed to assist the caller c to contact with the user u through the rely node r when u’s phone is out of use.
  • Social network is built by the phone call records
    • ωu,bi is the weight of relation between two individuals
      • ω is weight of two-individual relation.
      • R is the number of phone record
      • Ru,b is indicated as the record of u’s calling to bi
      • bi is indicated as the u’s buddy
social model 2 2

Where

Social Model (2/2)
  • Prelation is a rank of social relation between two individuals
    • ωu,bi and degree of relation between u and gj (gj: the group in u’s buddy list)
  • Ptarget is an output of social model for contact with the person by computing the whole statistical data
    • Ptargetis the probability of c communicating with u byr
    • Plocationis the probability of u and bi being in the same location
    • Prelation is the rank of social relation between biand u
    • αlocationis the weight of Plocation to affect Ptarget
    • αrelationis the weight of Prelation to affect Ptarget
intelligent service of ups
Intelligent Service of UPS
  • Ubiquitous Call Service
  • AnyCall Service
  • Emergent-contact Service
intelligent service of ups ubiquitous call service
Intelligent Service of UPS - Ubiquitous Call Service
  • Ubiquitous call service is aimed to provide a novel human-centric phone call service.
  • When a user desires to call a buddy from his contact list, he just clicks on the buddy’s name.
  • The call agent on the user’s PDA phone will communicate with the service providing server and provide the most appropriate service to the user
    • VoIP call, a GSM call, or a short message
intelligent service of ups ubiquitous call service1
Intelligent Service of UPS - Ubiquitous Call Service
  • Ubiquitous call service automatically choose the right communication channel to connect to the callee based on context information like reachability, call rate, user preference
  • UbiCall also provides intelligent feedback service when the callee is not available
    • such as when to call back according to callee’s calendar, whether to automatically re-dial when the callee becomes available.
intelligent service of ups anycall service
Intelligent Service of UPS- AnyCall Service
  • AnyCall is similar to the anycast service in IP networks
    • It provides the user to call the most appropriate buddy within a group
  • Consider an emergent scenario
    • where the user needs to call anyone in his family group to inform an accident. In such an emergent situation, any buddy from the family group will be able to help the caller.
  • AnyCall provides the user an interface to just a single click on the group name, it will connect the phone call to one of the group members who is available at that time to answer the phone.
intelligent service of ups emergent contact service
Intelligent Service of UPS- Emergent-contact Service
  • The emergent-contact service helps the caller contact with a third party from callee’s contact list or a phone at a location when the callee is not reachable.
    • social, calendar and location information are used to reason the most appropriate third party.
implementation
Implementation

Experimental Environment

Middleware

experimental environment
Experimental Environment

Wireless Network

Telecommunication Network

Service Providing Servers

Context Management Server

Wireless Network

Agents

Inference Server

Internet

middleware

WSDL

Encapsulating SOAP Message

XML, DTD, RDF Triple Storage, OWL SemanticDefinition

Context Acquisition or Communication

Agents

Middleware
  • Web Service
    • SOAP
  • Ontology tree
    • OWL
    • RDF
implemental achievement
Implemental achievement

Dormitory

zqq

hushpuppy

Lunsrot

Messaging Server

Septhiorth

VoIP Server& Agents

Context Management Server

Engineering College A

Learn2.0 project members

Internet

UbiCom Group

Web2.0 Group

E-learning Group

Web2.0 Group

In EA105

In EA315

ubiquitous call service
Ubiquitous Call Service

hushpuppy

hushpuppy

In the Library

In the Library

Lunsrot

Lunsrot

In EA315

In EA315

?

Inference

During Lunsrot’s surveying papers, he has new thoughts about Web2.0 and he wants to discuss with hushpuppy

anycall
AnyCall

Elearn2.0 Proj

Elearn2.0 Proj

zqq

zqq

hushpuppy

hushpuppy

In the Library

In the Library

Lunsrot

Lunsrot

?

In EA315

In EA315

Septhiorth

Septhiorth

In EA105

In EA105

Inference

Septhiorth wants to discuss with anyone who joins Learn2.0 project

verification of social model 1 7
Verification of Social Model (1/7)

Find 22 experimenters and select one who knows others of them

Set the relation degree of the chosen one from his preference setting

Record the phone call records of 22 experimenters during one month

Record the location logs of the chosen one during one month and calculate statistics of logs

Record locations of 22 experimenters during some week after that month

verification of social model 2 7
Verification of Social Model (2/7)

Record the phone call records of 22 experimenters during one month

experimental
Experimental
  • Successful case
    • Masa attends group meeting in EA105 from 16:00 to 18:00 on every Tuesday. It is a quite regular activity and he attends the meeting as usual on the fifth week.
    • Table shows the possibility of suggesting each contact as well as a location if that location has a phone.
experimental1
Experimental
  • Fail case
    • On the Friday of the fifth week, masa attends a BBQ party from 18:00 to 22:00 which is not a regular activity.
    • The BBQ party was held in Orange Grange where masa never been there during the past four weeks.
    • Furthermore, masa does not put this event in his calendar.
experimental2
Experimental
  • Puzi is the emergent contact suggested by the system due to his high intensity of social relation with masa.
  • However, Puzi is preparing a presentation in EA315 at that time.
  • Bluejam has the second highest possibility and is actually also in the BBQ party. Therefore, if the system provides a list of possible candidates instead of just one, the user could have chance to find masa through bluejam.
agenda2
Agenda
  • Introduction
    • Pervasive Computing
    • Context-aware
  • Context-aware Service
    • Ubiquitous Phone System (UPS)
    • Context-aware Path Planning (UbiPaPaGo)
  • Conclusion
scenario1
Scenario

Mary has a class at 13:30 PM but she is late. She leaves library and uses PDA to connect online e-learning system and walks to classroom as soon as possible

She needs to hand in an hard copy assignment in class, so she also needs printer to print out her assignment on her moving way.

Therefore, Mary hopes to find the shorter path without breaking off online e-learning system and access printer service.

Application

Path plan in Navigation System

Requirement

Signal strength, Bandwidth, shorter path, printer service

46

problem definition1
Problem Definition
  • Based on user’s requirement and available context, how to plan path?
  • Path planning problem
    • Find a optimal path that maximizes the user-required fitness function
  • Goal
    • Maximum bandwidth, signal strength
    • Minimum distance
    • Available service
design idea
Design Idea
  • Phase 1: Create a trajectory map using Spatial Conceptual Map (SCM)
    • Modify the parameters of SCM
      • Modify the partition rule of Way Element Areas (WEA)
      • Characteristic Function
  • Phase 2: Plan optimal path using Genetic Algorithm
    • Initialization
      • Coding or Representation
    • Fitness function
      • Parent selection
    • Reproduction
      • Crossover
      • Mutation
    • Convergence
      • When to stop
ccu campus map
CCU Campus Map

http://www.ccu.edu.tw/eng/GIS/ccumap.swf

characteristic function
Characteristic Function
  • Co(Oi)={c1=id c2=name, c3=location,…}
    • Ex: Co(O1)={c1=B1, c2=library, c3=α8}
  • Co(αi)= {c1=distance, c2=AP list, c3=available service…}
    • Ex: Co(α2)= {c1=5, c2={AP1 ,AP2}, c3={printer, fax}}
  • Co(APi)= {c1=SSID, c2=available bandwidth, c3=signal strength,…}
    • Ex: Co(AP1)= {c1=3com, c2=4, c3=5}
step 2 plan optimal path using genetic algorithm
Step 2: Plan optimal path using Genetic Algorithm
  • Initialize chromosomes
  • Crossover
  • Mutation
  • Evaluate fitness function

Node: Object and crossover

initial population
Initial population
  • Initial population is very important because it affects the convergence speed and the quality of solution.
  • Random initialization possible leads to large computing overhead and loop path
  • Heuristic initialization is hard to find global optimal.
initial population1
Initial population
  • We adopt a probability network approach which combines the features of random and heuristic initializations to generate initial candidate paths in the gene pool.
  • This process is repeated from the starting node to the goal node
    • A gene in a locus randomly selected from the set of forward direction nodes which are connected with the node of the locus number and not visited before
      • Easily to achieve destination node
      • Avoid loop problem
    • The selected gene n put in the mth locus of the chromosome
  • The nodes x which are not passed through
    • randomly select one node from the set of nodes which are connected with xand put it in the xth locus
initial population2
Initial population
  • Goal
    • Randomly select k paths
    • Guarantee to destination node
    • Avoid loop problem
example 1

53

55

29

33

57

24

51

57

35

29

53

59

48

46

14

Example-1
  • Ex: Route 19 -> 51 (O5-> O7)

locus numbers

10 12 14 19 24 29 31 33 35 46 48 51 53 55 57 59

Chromosome

Route 19-> 33 -> 57 -> 55 ->53 ->51

example 2

51

33

33

31

24

48

12

19

57

29

46

59

53

55

57

35

Example-2
  • Ex: Route 19 -> 51 (O5-> O7)

locus numbers

10 12 14 19 24 29 31 33 35 46 48 51 53 55 57 59

Chromosome

Route 19-> 33 -> 31->29->24->48->51

fitness function
Fitness Function
  • Fitness function of the chromosome measures the objective cost function
    • Signal strength (S)
    • Available Bandwidth (B)
    • Path Length (D)
    • Available Service (S)
      • The relative values of ws,wb,wd, ,wa represent the aggressiveness of the cost function
  • Satisfy user’s requirement
fitness function3
Fitness Function
  • Route 5-> 10 -> 29-> 31
reproduction
Reproduction
  • The best fitness chromosome is coped into the gene pool
    • Crossover
    • Mutation
crossover
Crossover
  • Crossover operation combines two chromosomes (called parents) to produce a new chromosome (called offspring)
  • our crossover operation is carefully designed to avoid the path looping problem
  • Two parent chromosomes are randomly selected from the gene pool.
  • If the genes of the locus of two parents are the same, then just copy the gene to the offspring. Otherwise, we will prefer to select the gene (node) that has not been appeared (visited) before.
example crossover

24

31

33

29

33

57

33

55

51

14

35

29

53

59

48

53

53

46

51

57

29

33

31

24

48

57

12

19

51

29

46

59

53

55

57

33

35

Example -crossover

Offspring: 19-> 33 -> 31->29->53->51

  • Ex: Route 19 -> 51 (O5-> O7)

locus numbers

10 12 14 19 24 29 31 33 35 46 48 51 53 55 57 59

Parent 1

Parent 2

mutation
Mutation
  • Avoid local optima by preventing the population of chromosomes
  • Randomly select one node in the route path as the mutation gene
example mutation

14

53

29

33

57

35

51

35

55

53

59

48

29

46

24

57

33

Example - Mutation
  • Ex: Route 19 -> 51 (O5-> O7)

locus numbers

10 12 14 19 24 29 31 33 35 46 48 51 53 55 57 59

Chromosome

Route 19-> 33 -> 57 -> 55 ->53 ->51

Before

Route 19-> 33 -> 35 -> 46-59-57-55-53-51

After

implementation 1
Implementation -1

User connects to Service Provider and uses UbiPaPago Service

implementation 2
Implementation -2

UbiPaPaGo Service Provider receives the request from user

implementation 3
Implementation -3

The path planning result

experimental results 1
Experimental Results -1

Results of UbiPaPaGo

Example map with optimal path

experimental results 2
Experimental Results -2
  • Average fitness value under various population sizes
agenda3
Agenda
  • Introduction
    • Pervasive Computing
    • Context-aware
  • Context-aware Service
    • Ubiquitous Phone System (UbiPhone)
    • Context-aware Path Planning (UbiPaPaGo)
  • Conclusion
conclusion 1
Conclusion-1

UPS is a context-aware intelligent communication system

Unify various intercommunicated interfaces

Intelligently and immediately help human achieve required services

Integrate a communication system with social network

conclusion 2
Conclusion-2
  • UbiPaPaGo is a context-aware path planning mechanism
    • It takes into account multiple requirements and context of users and environment when planning the best-fitting path
    • Experimental results show that the proposed UbiPaPaGo efficiently finds the best-fitting path which guarantees RSS, bandwidth, available service and shorter distance simultaneously
future works 1
Future Works-1
  • UPS
    • Handover between telecommunication network and IP network
    • Emotion for presence context can immediately respond to users’ degree of satisfaction without users’ feedback and make UPS provide more adaptive services
    • Other social behaviors can help strengthen social network and tune up social model
future works 2
Future Works-2
  • UbiPaPaGo
    • Unknown destination
    • Vertical handoff between AP and BS
    • Resource reservation along the path in advance to guarantee quality of service of the path
    • Security and privacy issues
slide79

Q&A

Thank You