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  1. Context-aware Services in Ubiquitous Network Chiung-Ying Wang

  2. Agenda • Introduction • Pervasive Computing • Context-aware • Context-aware Service • Ubiquitous Phone System (UPS) • Context-aware Path Planning (UbiPaPaGo) • Conclusion

  3. Introduction • With the advancement of technology and the rapid development of mobile device, we are entering the ubiquitous computing (UbiCom) era advocated by Mark Weiser • A ubiquitous network aims to provide users intelligent human-centric context-aware services at anytime anywhere. • Context-aware is the key feature for human-centered services as it enables services adaptive to human needs.

  4. Pervasive Computing • Mark Weiser’s[1] 1991 paper that described his vision of ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) , now also called pervasive computing • Ubiquitous computing is the method of enhancing computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user • Ubiquitous environment • Full of smart equipments and context-aware information • Invisible computing [1] M. Weiser, “The Computer for the Twenty-First Century,” Scientific American, pp. 94-104, September 1991

  5. Pervasive Computing (Cont.) • Smart space • Various interconnected devices • Wearable and embedded computer, Smart phone, PDA, Notebook, PC, Server • Various connectives • Peer-to-peer, client-server, MANET, WLAN, 3G and 4G • Seamless integration of networking and computing capabilities within human environments • Pervasive computing is about making our lives simpler

  6. Ubiquitous Environment GPS Receiver RFID Tag GPS Satellite APsignal GPSinformation Wireless AP AP signal Internet GSM / 3Gsignal GSM / 3Gsignal GPS information Servers RFIDinformation 3G Base Station RFID資訊 RFID Antenna

  7. Ubiquitous Environment GPS Satellite Servers APsignal GPSinformation Wireless AP AP signal Internet GSM / 3Gsignal Network Status GPS information GSM / 3Gsignal RFIDinformation Location information Agents 3G Base Station RFID資訊 RFID Antenna

  8. Scenario-1 • 五月天的下午,開著冷氣您乘坐在舒適豪華的Jaguar愛車裡,優雅舒適地徜徉於信義計劃區網狀的市區道路中,意氣風發的您不必為了惱人的單向、雙向行車問題而迷路或為了工作分派的問題而煩惱,因為您的車載電腦更勝於您美麗的女助理。“哈囉”,隨著熟悉的聲音,它提示您:30分鐘後您在台北101世界超高摩天大樓將有一個約會,並顯示從目前位置前往的路線圖,車程時間為20分鐘。您告訴它說“瞭解”,並結束對話。 • “哈囉”,它又提醒您,走另一條路,車程可能會多個10分鐘,但您可以順道買一杯您喜歡的StarBuck拿鐵咖啡。“謝謝您”,您爽朗的回答,您喜歡這個超人性化的提議。但您可能會因此而遲到,怎麼辦呢?不用擔心,它(您的夥計)早就為老哥您設想週到地送出一個簡訊給您的約會對象,您可以從容不迫地到達目的地就好!不必為了些微的耽擱而焦慮。畢竟,台北市長曾說過:行車安全最重要的啦!

  9. Scenario-2 • 一大早,電腦會知道你起床了,於是啟動咖啡機 • 你一進入浴室,蓮蓬頭就自動開啟,調到你最喜歡的水溫 • 等你開始走下樓,事先裝好土司的烤麵包機就開始加熱,把早餐依你喜歡的方式煮好 • 打開冰箱,機器會提醒你,沒有牛奶了,而且罐子裡的涼拌包心菜絲已經過期,應該扔掉了 http://h50007.www5.hp.com/enterprise/member/info/0403_rfid/rfid01-02.asp

  10. Pervasive Computing (Cont.) • How to access information? Computer-centric Human-centric Context-aware

  11. Context-aware • Context-aware means that one is able to use context information • A system is context-aware if it can extract, interpret and use context information and adapt its functionality to the current context of use • Definition of context: • Context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity • An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and application themselves Context-Aware Applications Survey: http://users.tkk.fi/~mkorkeaa/doc/context-aware.html

  12. Example of Context • identity • spatial information - e.g. location, orientation, speed, and acceleration • temporal information - e.g. time of the day, date, and season of the year • environmental information - e.g. temperature, air quality, and light or noise level • social situation - e.g. who you are with, and people that are nearby • resources that are nearby - e.g. accessible devices, and hosts • availability of resources - e.g. battery, display, network, and bandwidth • physiological measurements - e.g. blood pressure, hart rate, respiration rate, muscle activity, and tone of voice • activity - e.g. talking, reading, walking, and running • schedules and agendas

  13. Agenda • Introduction • Pervasive Computing • Context-aware • Context-aware Service • Ubiquitous Phone System (UPS) • Context-aware Path Planning (UbiPaPaGo) • Conclusion

  14. Ubiquitous Phone System (UPS)

  15. Motivation Dual-mode feature-rich business smart phone has more and more popular. Besides tri-band UMTS/HSDPA and quad-band GPRS/EDGE/GSM, most of these smart phones also support WiFi, Bluetooth, and GPS connectivity. However, use of these feature-rich smart phones still relies on users’ attention with complicated configuration, either priori or on-demand.

  16. Motivation (Cont.) • For general naïve users, more intelligent, human-centered services and simplified user interfaces are expected

  17. Scenario • 老闆突然有事要取消meeting,希望能自動撥號給實驗室任何一位研究生 • 有空接聽電話的人 • 費率最低

  18. Problem Definition • How to immediately achieve users’ requirements by context information • How to efficiently help users make explicit decisions from varieties of communication ways • How to help the caller contact with the callee whose personal smart device is out of use when emergency call is incoming

  19. Solution Approach Use context digest model and inference model to achieve users’ requirements by context-awareness Use inference model to explicitly connect the most adaptive communication way for users Use social model to help the caller contact with the callee whose personal smart device is out of use

  20. Social Network • Small-world phenomenon • The six degrees of separation concept • Social network is defined as a social structure made of nodes which are generally people or groups • Social network can reflect the relation between two individuals

  21. Architecture of UPS

  22. Models • Context Digest Model • Ontology tree • Inference Model • Social Model

  23. Context Digest Model Context Digest Model PersonalData SensorData StatusData LocationData StatusContext LocationContext ScheduleContext Net. StatusContext … Context Information Management Module Context Information Context Acquisition Module PersonalData SensorData StatusData LocationData Clients

  24. Context Information • Static context • Static context is the fundamental attribute • users’ profile and preference, device’s profile • Dynamic context • Dynamic context presents the instant information • user’s presence status and location • Auditing context • Auditing context is the statistical output by operating • phone call logs, location logs and event logs

  25. Inference Model • Pre-define intelligent communication policies with SPARQL (recursively, SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language) • Event-oriented • Rule-based engine • Reach personalized service by the preference setting of users

  26. Social Model (1/2) , • Social model is designed to assist the caller c to contact with the user u through the rely node r when u’s phone is out of use. • Social network is built by the phone call records • ωu,bi is the weight of relation between two individuals • ω is weight of two-individual relation. • R is the number of phone record • Ru,b is indicated as the record of u’s calling to bi • bi is indicated as the u’s buddy

  27. Where Social Model (2/2) • Prelation is a rank of social relation between two individuals • ωu,bi and degree of relation between u and gj (gj: the group in u’s buddy list) • Ptarget is an output of social model for contact with the person by computing the whole statistical data • Ptargetis the probability of c communicating with u byr • Plocationis the probability of u and bi being in the same location • Prelation is the rank of social relation between biand u • αlocationis the weight of Plocation to affect Ptarget • αrelationis the weight of Prelation to affect Ptarget

  28. Intelligent Service of UPS • Ubiquitous Call Service • AnyCall Service • Emergent-contact Service

  29. Intelligent Service of UPS - Ubiquitous Call Service • Ubiquitous call service is aimed to provide a novel human-centric phone call service. • When a user desires to call a buddy from his contact list, he just clicks on the buddy’s name. • The call agent on the user’s PDA phone will communicate with the service providing server and provide the most appropriate service to the user • VoIP call, a GSM call, or a short message

  30. Intelligent Service of UPS - Ubiquitous Call Service • Ubiquitous call service automatically choose the right communication channel to connect to the callee based on context information like reachability, call rate, user preference • UbiCall also provides intelligent feedback service when the callee is not available • such as when to call back according to callee’s calendar, whether to automatically re-dial when the callee becomes available.

  31. Intelligent Service of UPS- AnyCall Service • AnyCall is similar to the anycast service in IP networks • It provides the user to call the most appropriate buddy within a group • Consider an emergent scenario • where the user needs to call anyone in his family group to inform an accident. In such an emergent situation, any buddy from the family group will be able to help the caller. • AnyCall provides the user an interface to just a single click on the group name, it will connect the phone call to one of the group members who is available at that time to answer the phone.

  32. Intelligent Service of UPS- Emergent-contact Service • The emergent-contact service helps the caller contact with a third party from callee’s contact list or a phone at a location when the callee is not reachable. • social, calendar and location information are used to reason the most appropriate third party.

  33. Implementation Experimental Environment Middleware

  34. Experimental Environment Wireless Network Telecommunication Network Service Providing Servers Context Management Server Wireless Network Agents Inference Server Internet

  35. WSDL Encapsulating SOAP Message XML, DTD, RDF Triple Storage, OWL SemanticDefinition Context Acquisition or Communication Agents Middleware • Web Service • SOAP • Ontology tree • OWL • RDF

  36. Implemental achievement Dormitory zqq hushpuppy Lunsrot Messaging Server Septhiorth VoIP Server& Agents Context Management Server Engineering College A Learn2.0 project members Internet UbiCom Group Web2.0 Group E-learning Group Web2.0 Group In EA105 In EA315

  37. Ubiquitous Call Service hushpuppy hushpuppy In the Library In the Library Lunsrot Lunsrot In EA315 In EA315 ? Inference During Lunsrot’s surveying papers, he has new thoughts about Web2.0 and he wants to discuss with hushpuppy

  38. AnyCall Elearn2.0 Proj Elearn2.0 Proj zqq zqq hushpuppy hushpuppy In the Library In the Library Lunsrot Lunsrot ? In EA315 In EA315 Septhiorth Septhiorth In EA105 In EA105 Inference Septhiorth wants to discuss with anyone who joins Learn2.0 project

  39. Verification of Social Model (1/7) Find 22 experimenters and select one who knows others of them Set the relation degree of the chosen one from his preference setting Record the phone call records of 22 experimenters during one month Record the location logs of the chosen one during one month and calculate statistics of logs Record locations of 22 experimenters during some week after that month

  40. Verification of Social Model (2/7) Record the phone call records of 22 experimenters during one month

  41. Experimental • Successful case • Masa attends group meeting in EA105 from 16:00 to 18:00 on every Tuesday. It is a quite regular activity and he attends the meeting as usual on the fifth week. • Table shows the possibility of suggesting each contact as well as a location if that location has a phone.

  42. Experimental • Fail case • On the Friday of the fifth week, masa attends a BBQ party from 18:00 to 22:00 which is not a regular activity. • The BBQ party was held in Orange Grange where masa never been there during the past four weeks. • Furthermore, masa does not put this event in his calendar.

  43. Experimental • Puzi is the emergent contact suggested by the system due to his high intensity of social relation with masa. • However, Puzi is preparing a presentation in EA315 at that time. • Bluejam has the second highest possibility and is actually also in the BBQ party. Therefore, if the system provides a list of possible candidates instead of just one, the user could have chance to find masa through bluejam.

  44. Agenda • Introduction • Pervasive Computing • Context-aware • Context-aware Service • Ubiquitous Phone System (UPS) • Context-aware Path Planning (UbiPaPaGo) • Conclusion

  45. Scenario Mary has a class at 13:30 PM but she is late. She leaves library and uses PDA to connect online e-learning system and walks to classroom as soon as possible She needs to hand in an hard copy assignment in class, so she also needs printer to print out her assignment on her moving way. Therefore, Mary hopes to find the shorter path without breaking off online e-learning system and access printer service. Application Path plan in Navigation System Requirement Signal strength, Bandwidth, shorter path, printer service 46

  46. Problem Definition • Based on user’s requirement and available context, how to plan path? • Path planning problem • Find a optimal path that maximizes the user-required fitness function • Goal • Maximum bandwidth, signal strength • Minimum distance • Available service

  47. Design Idea • Phase 1: Create a trajectory map using Spatial Conceptual Map (SCM) • Modify the parameters of SCM • Modify the partition rule of Way Element Areas (WEA) • Characteristic Function • Phase 2: Plan optimal path using Genetic Algorithm • Initialization • Coding or Representation • Fitness function • Parent selection • Reproduction • Crossover • Mutation • Convergence • When to stop

  48. CCU Campus Map http://www.ccu.edu.tw/eng/GIS/ccumap.swf