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Chapter 4: Job Analysis. SHRM ( 學分班 ). Nature of Job Analysis. Job analysis( 工作分析 ) Procedure to determine the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Job description ( 工作分析的產物 1: 工作說明書 )

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chapter 4 job analysis

Chapter 4: Job Analysis

SHRM (學分班)

nature of job analysis
Nature of Job Analysis

Job analysis(工作分析)

  • Procedure to determine the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.

Job description (工作分析的產物1:工作說明書)

  • List of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities -- one product of a job analysis.

Job specification (工作分析的產物2:工作規範)

  • A list of a job’s “human requirements,” (i.e. education, skills, personality, etc -- another product of a job analysis.
types of information collected
Types of Information Collected
  • Work activities工作活動
  • Human behaviors
  • Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
  • Performance standards
  • Job context工作內涵
  • Human requirements
uses of job analysis information
Uses of Job Analysis Information
  • Recruitment and selection
  • Compensation
  • Performance appraisal
  • Training
  • Career Development
steps in job analysis
Steps in Job Analysis

Step 1: Decide how you will use the information

- for writing JD, Qualitative approach

- for compensation, quantitative approach

Step 2:Review relevant background information

- Org. chart, process chart, old job description

Step 3:Select representative positions.

-? Select the average one, or the exemplar?

Step 4:Actually analyze the job.

charting the organization
Charting the Organization

Organization chart 組織圖

  • A chart that shows the organizationwide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates to whom.

Process chart 工作流程圖

  • More detailed picture of the work flow.
  • A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.
steps in job analysis1
Steps in Job Analysis

Step 5:Verify the job analysis information.

- With the worker & the immediate supervisor.

Step 6:Develop a job description and job specification.

methods of collecting job analysis information the interview
Information sources

Individual employees

Groups of employees

Supervisors with knowledge of the job

Advantages

Quick, direct way to find overlooked information.

Disadvantages

Distorted information

(資訊扭曲)

Interview formats

Structured (Checklist)

Unstructured (Fig. 4-3)

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview 使用得最廣
methods of collecting job analysis information questionnaires
Information source

Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities.

Questionnaire formats

Structured checklists

Opened-ended questions

Advantages

Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees

Disadvantages

Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires
methods of collecting job analysis information observation
Information source

Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs.

Advantages

Provides first-hand information

Reduces distortion of information

Disadvantages

Time consuming

Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle

Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Observation
observation
Observation
  • 適合可觀察的行為活動
    • 如生產線員工
  • 不適合心智活動多的工作
    • 如律師、高階主管
  • 或work cycle長的工作
  • 難事後分析比較
methods of collecting job analysis information participant diary
Information source

Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent in each activity.

Advantages

Produces a more complete picture of the job

Employee participation

Disadvantages

Distortion of information (eg. 誇大)

Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary (工作日誌)

什麼樣的工作常被要求寫工作日誌?

quantitative job analysis techniques
Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques
  • Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
    • A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs.
    • Fig. 4-4
    • 194 items, 5 basic activities, www.paq.com
    • 量化後比較以決定每項工作之薪给水準
quantitative job analysis techniques1
Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques
  • Functional Job Analysis (FJA)

加上以下四個層面分級

    • 執行任務所需特定指示(specific instruction)的程度
    • 執行任務所需推論與判斷 (reasoning and judgment)的程度
    • 執行任務所需的數理程度(math ability)
    • 執行任務所需的表達與語言能力(verbal and language)
slide17
小結
  • 結合多種工作分析的方法
  • 讓資料來源多元化
    • 個人、群體、主管等
writing job descriptions
Writing Job Descriptions

Job description

  • A statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are.

Sections of a typical job description

  • Job identification
  • Job summary
  • Responsibilities and duties
  • Authority of incumbent
  • Standards of performance
  • Working conditions
  • Job specifications
sample job description pearson education
Sample Job Description, Pearson Education

Source: Courtesy of HR Department, Pearson Education.

Figure 4–5

the job description cont
The Job Description (cont)

Relationships (chain of command)

  • Reports to: employee’s immediate supervisor
  • Supervises: employees that the job incumbent directly supervises
  • Works with: others with whom the job holder will be expected to work and come into contact with internally.
  • Outside the company: others with whom the job holder is expected to work and come into contact with externally.
job analysis in a jobless world
Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World

Job

  • defined as “a set of closely related activities carried out for pay.”
from specialized to enlarged jobs
From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs

Job enlargement 工作擴大化

  • Assign workers additional same level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.

Job enrichment 工作豐富化

  • Redesign jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.
from specialized to enlarged jobs cont
From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs (cont)

Job rotation工作輪調

  • Move trainees from department to department to broaden their experience and identify strong and weak points to prepare the person for an enhanced role with the company
  • Systematically move workers from one job to another to enhance work team performance.
why managers are dejobbing their companies
Dejobbing

Broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs

Encouraging employee initiative.

Internal factors leading to dejobbing

Flatter organizations

Work teams

External factors leading to dejobbing.

Rapid product and technological change

Global competition

Deregulation,

Political instability,

Demographic changes

Rise of a service economy.

Why Managers Are Dejobbing Their Companies
competency based job analysis
Competency-Based Job Analysis

Competencies

  • Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job.

Competency-based job analysis

  • Describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) an employee must exhibit to do a job well.