How do we view the Revolution? • Nation triumph • Inevitable • We were right and they were wrong • It was all about freedom
The French Indian War • The 7 years war, cost England 60 million pounds. • Rivalry between Virginians and French Fur traders and their Indian allies • Parliament believed that the colonists should pay some of this bill because they started the war.
Taxes on the Colonies • The Sugar Act – put a tax on sugar but it was not enough to pay the debt. • The Stamp Tax • This is the first tax that directly affects the people • Taxed all paper goods. • Colonists strongly disapproved. • Colonists said – taxation without representation • British said – virtual representation • Sons of Liberty lead by Samuel Adams – massive street demonstrations and boycotts that disrupt business.
More Taxes and Limitations • Finally repealed the Stamp Act in 1765. • Declaratory Act • British could not move past a certain territorial line • Asserted Parliament’s right to legislate for the colonies. • Townsend Duties • Tariff placed on items such as paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea.
The Boston Massacre • British impose more troops • March 5, 1770 – five people killed when a group of colonists taunt British soldiers and someone yells fire. • Colonists use this as propaganda.
Boston Massacre Propaganda • Soldiers look organized. • People look innocent. • This is not how it happened. Picture drawn by Paul Revere
Boston Tea Party • British repealed the Townsend duties on everything accept tea. This was only 3 pennies. • A group of people in Boston dressed as Natives and threw tea 10,000 British pounds worth of tea overboard. • British responded harshly.
Intolerable Acts/The Coercive Acts • Boston Port Act (1774) – shut down the Boston port until the ruined tea was paid for • Massachusetts Government Act – Elected assembly dissolved and new one appointed by the crown. • Impartial administration of Justice Act – Colonists called it “the Murdering Act” meant that all British soldiers accused of a crime must be sent back to Britain to stand trial. • Quartering Act – forced colonists to give quarter to British Soldiers. • Quebec Act – gives French Canadians civil rights even though most of them are Catholic.
Resistance • First Continental congress (1775) in Philadelphia – two representatives of each colony except Georgia. • Lexington and Concord (1775) – British General Thomas Gage march out to take control of a suspected ammunition storage facility in Concord • Paul Revere warns them that “The British are coming!” • Americans go out to stop them. Someone fires the first shot and a gunfight ensues. This shot is thought of as the “shot heard round the world.” • British were shocked at this display of disloyalty.
War or Peace? • Second Continental Congress (May 10, 1775) in Philadelphia. • The Olive Branch Petition called for extending the olive branch to Britain and preserving relations with the King. • Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms – rejoin Britain but on America’s terms.
Loyalist Slaves • Country split into Loyalists and Patriots • British promised freedom to any slave who fought on their side in the war • 20,000 joined • 10,000 died of illness • 8,000 to 10,000 left for Canada or Sierra Lione after the war.
Battle of Bunker Hill • Americans defeated the British at Bunker Hill • 400 colonists killed • 1,054 British soldiers killed despite the fact that the Americans did not have much ammunition. • Declaration of Independence – a completely new idea. This was a contract between the government and the people and had to be ratified by the people.
Common Sense • One of the most read books of the time was Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. Written in January of 1776. • Many patriots served in the militia which was a kind of informal army in which the soldiers did not wear uniforms and armed themselves with muskets. Preferred to use Ambush as a battle tactic. • These soldiers supported themselves by stealing or raiding nearby farms and desertion was high among the ranks.
The Battle of Saratoga • General John Burgoyne – Commander in Chief of the royal forces invading the United States from Canada • His plan was to cut New England and New York off from the rest of the colonies.
The British Forces Burgoyne’s Forces included: - Almost 4,000 British regulars - Over 3,000 Brunswick and Hesse-Hanau troops - 400 Native Americans from a variety of tribes - 300 Canadian woodsmen - 300 Loyalists.
The Plan • Burgoyne planned to meet with two other British forces, at Albany. • They Captured Ft. Ticonderoga then Ft. Edwards
Battle of Fort Edwards • Patriots scattered into the woods when they saw the British approaching. • Used the trees to shield themselves as they fought the British Battle of Fort Edwards
Misfortune for the British • The strategy used at Ft. Edwards cost the British 1000 men and slowed down their army. • By the time British troops arrived in Saratoga the American forces were ready for them.
Saratoga • Troops led by Horatio Gates were positioned along the road, forcing Burgoyne to fight all the way to Albany. • Burgoyne engaged Gates at the abandoned farm of Loyalist John Freeman. Horatio Gates
Saratoga (continued) • First Battle of Saratoga (Battle of Freeman’s Farm) ended with no outright victory for either side. • Though the British had suffered many casualties, Burgoyne held his ground hoping for aid from New York.
Second Battle of Saratoga • British supplies began to run low which led to a second battle of Saratoga. • Burgoyne surrendered to American forces led by Horatio Gates on October 17th, 1777. • Battle of Saratoga turned the war in favor of the Americans. Surrender of Burgoyne
The Revolution as a “World War” • Benjamin Franklin was dispatched early on in the war to ask for financial and military support. • King Louis XVI wanted to see the English lose control of the American colonies but was reluctant at first to commit much to the American cause. Benjamin Franklin King Louis XVI of France
French Aid • After receiving the news of Burgoyne’s defeat at the battle of Saratoga, the French Government gained enough confidence to recommend that King Louis XVI sign a treaty with the Americans. Map illustrates French aid to the colonies
Alliance with France • Treaty of Amity and Commerce (1778) – Alliance with France. Stated that both sides must fight until both the Americans and the French decided to end the war. • First treaty to recognize the US as an independent nation: “The United States of America.” Flag in honor of the end of the American Revolutionary War and the aid provided by France in the conflict.
Other Foreign Aid • Spain had agreed to remain neutral as long as the British returned Gibraltar. • When their demands were not met, they added their support. • The Netherlands also supported the colonies. • These nations did not fight out of love for the Americans but out of enmity for the British. Spanish Troops during the Revolutionary war at the Battle of Pensacola in West Florida
Battle of Yorktown • French fleet arrived in the summer of 1781. • Fleet blockaded Yorktown • British were trapped by American and French troops against the York River.
Battle of Yorktown (Continued) • With his back the sea and under constant gunfire, Cornwallis had no choice but to surrender. • Two days later, the British were forced to parade their units through French and American troops to lay down their arms.
The Surrender • As the British laid down arms, a British band played the popular tune “The World Turned Upside Down.” • Cornwallis sent a representative, General O’Hara, to surrender his sword. • The sword was received by Major General Benjamin Lincoln. The Surrender of Cornwallis
George III’s Reaction King George III of England • George III was prepared to continue the fight. • Parliament did not agree.
Aftermath • Despite the decision of Parliament, George Washington maintained a state of military preparedness after the Revolutionary war. George Washington
How should we view the Revolution? • Nation triumph? • Not entirely, we would never have won without the help of the other countries. • Part of a much bigger conflict • Inevitable? • There were plenty of other options available • We were right and they were wrong? • Both sides believed they were right. Which side do you think was right? • It was all about freedom? • It was really all about taxes