Historical Foundations. Chapter 4. Historical Foundations. Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth. Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the fields.
Identify events that served as catalysts for physical education, exercise science, and sport’s growth.
Identify some of the outstanding leaders in the fields.
Discuss recent developments in physical education, exercise science, and sport.
Draw implications from history of our fields for the future of physical education, exercise science, and sport.
and early 1970s.
How did urbanization influence the development of sports in America?
How did the sports activities of Native Americans influence the recreational pursuits of the early colonists?
How did segregation impact sports opportunities for blacks?
What factors influenced the inclusion of physical education in the school curriculum?
How did sport develop and what is its impact on youth culture?
Period of nationalism - focus on development of strong citizens through school and community programs of physical education.
Physical education should be included in the school curriculum – programs emphasize the development of strength.
Scientific study of physical education
Used anatomy and physiology to study the effects of physical education on the body.
Less emphasis on strength than German approach
Influenced by nationalism.
Colonists led an agrarian existence - physical activity through performing tasks essential to living and survival.
Colonists brought sports with them from their native lands.
Puritans denounced play as evil; recreational pursuits frowned upon.
Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools, not physical education.
Charles Beck(1798-1866) 1825 - introduced German gymnastics to his students at the Round Hill School.
Charles Follen(1796-1840) 1826 - organized exercise classes based on the German system for his students at Harvard University.
Catherine Beecher(1800-1878) 1828 – developed a program of calisthenics performed to music, which included Swedish exercises, to improve the health and vitality of her students at the Hartford Female Seminary.
Battle of the Systems
Physical educators developed conditioning programs for armed forces.
After the war, health statistics revealed that the nation was in poor shape (1/3 of men were physically unfit for armed service).
Growth and upgrade of PE programs in schools following war due to legislation in some states.
Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs and growth of recreational programs.
Physical educators more involved in recreational programs for the unemployed.
Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and women’s programs.
Charles McCloy (1886-1959) – advocated “education of the physical” and stressed the importance documenting results and measuring progress of using scientific data.
Recognition of the critical role school PE plays in achieving national health goals.
Fitness status and physical activity of children and youth is a concern.
Congressional support for high-quality, daily physical education is needed.
National Content Standards offer a national framework that emphasize student learning.
Emergence of new curricular models.
Expansion of the fitness movement and involvement in physical activity.
Shift from performance- to health-related fitness to an emphasis on moderate-intensity physical activity.
Physical inactivity recognized as a major health problem.
Rapid growth since the passage of Title IX in 1972.
Changes in governance of intercollegiate sports.
Challenges to Title IX.
Changes in physical education classes following passage of Title IX.
Rebirth of the Olympics in 1896.
Politicization of the Olympic Games.
“Fairness” issues in the Olympics. Evolving definitions of amateurism.
Commercialization of the Olympics.