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Brain Development. Nervous Systems. Nervous system. Central nervous system. Peripheral nervous system. Spinal cord. Sensory pathways. Motor pathways. Brain. Somatic (voluntary) nervous system. Autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. Sympathetic arousal & energy production

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slide2

Nervous system

Centralnervoussystem

Peripheralnervoussystem

Spinalcord

Sensorypathways

Motorpathways

Brain

Somatic(voluntary)nervous system

Autonomic(involuntary)nervous system

  • Sympathetic
  • arousal & energy production
  • “fight or flight”
  • Parasympathetic
  • calming & back to maintenance
  • “rest & digest”

Sympatheticdivision

Parasympatheticdivision

types of neurons
Types of neurons

cell body

sensory neuron

cell body

axon

interneuron

“associative”

dendrites

dendrites

cell

body

motor neuron

cephalization brain evolution

associative

neurons

nerve cords

radial nerve

nerveribs

nerve

net

FlatwormPlatyhelminthes

Cnidarian

Echinoderm

Cephalization = Brain evolution
  • Cephalization= clustering of neurons in “brain” at front (anterior) end of bilaterally symmetrical animals

 where sense organs are

More organization

but still based on nerve nets; supports more complex movement

Simplest, defined central nervous system

more complex muscle control

Simplest nervous system

no control of complex actions

cephalization brain evolution1

giant

axon

central nervous system

brain

brain

ventral

nerve cords

peripheral

nerves

Mollusk

Earthworm

Arthropod

Cephalization = Brain evolution
  • increase in interneurons in brain region

More complex brains

connected to all other parts of body by peripheral nerves

More complex brains in predators

most sophisticated invertebrate nervous system

Further brain development

ganglia = neuron clusters along CNS

evolution of vertebrate brain

Shark

Frog

Crocodile

Cat

Human

Spinal cord

Hind: Medulla oblongata

Hind: Cerebellum

Optic tectum

Bird

Midbrain

Fore: Cerebrum

Olfactory tract

Evolution of vertebrate brain

forebrain

forebraindominant cerebrum

hindbrain

forebrain

functional divisions of brain
Functional divisions of brain
  • Hindbrain
    • evolutionary older structures of the brain
      • regulate essential autonomic & integrative functions
    • brainstem
      • pons
      • medulla oblongata
      • midbrain
    • cerebellum
    • thalamus, hypothalamus
brainstem
Brainstem
  • The “lower brain”
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons
    • midbrain
  • Functions
    • homeostasis
    • coordination of movement
    • conduction of impulses to higher brain centers
medulla oblongata pons
Medulla oblongata & Pons
  • Controls autonomic homeostatic functions
    • heart & blood vessel activity
    • breathing
    • swallowing
    • vomiting
    • digestion
  • Relays information to & from higher brain centers
midbrain
Midbrain
  • Involved in the integration of sensory information
    • regulation of visual reflexes
    • regulation of auditory reflexes
reticular formation
Reticular Formation
  • Sleep & wakefulness produces patterns of electrical activity in the brain
    • recorded as an ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG)
    • most dreaming during REM(rapid eye movement) sleep
cerebrum
Cerebrum
  • Most highly evolved structure of mammalian brain
  • Cerebrum divided
    • hemispheres
    • left = right side of body
    • right = left side of body
  • Corpus callosum
    • major connection between 2 hemispheres
lateralization of brain function
Lateralization of Brain Function
  • Left hemisphere
    • language, math, logic operations, processing of serial sequences of information, visual & auditory details
    • detailed activities required for motor control
  • Right hemisphere
    • pattern recognition, spatial relationships, non-verbal ideation, emotional processing, parallel processing of information
cerebrum specialization
Cerebrum specialization
  • Regions of the cerebrum are specialized for different functions
  • Lobes
    • frontal
    • temporal
    • occipital
    • parietal
limbic system
Limbic system

Mediates basic emotions (fear, anger), involved in emotional bonding, establishes emotional memory

Amygdala involved in recognizing emotional content of facial expression

simplest nerve circuit
Simplest Nerve Circuit
  • Reflex, or automatic response
  • rapid response
    • automated
  • signal only goes to spinal cord
    • no higher level processing
  • adaptive value
    • essential actions
    • don’t need to think or make decisions about
      • blinking
      • balance
      • pupil dilation
      • startle
eye blink or pain withdrawal reflex
Eye Blink or Pain Withdrawal Reflex

Gray

matter

Interneuron

Stimulus

White

matter

Receptor

in skin

Sensory

neuron

Motor

neuron

Spinal

cord

Effector

(muscle)

slide20

cerebrum

cerebellum

spinal cord

cervical

nerves

thoracic

nerves

lumbar

nerves

femoral

nerve

sciatic

nerve

tibial

nerve

Any Questions??