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The Dust Bowl “Can It Happen Again”
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  1. The Dust Bowl“Can It Happen Again” Mike Sporcic National Wind Erosion Specialist USDA NRCS

  2. Not Far From Home

  3. Bismark, ND

  4. Liberal, KS April 14, 1935

  5. A black blizzard over Prowers Co. CO. 1937

  6. Black Sunday April 14, 1935. The dust storm that turned day into night. Many believed the world was coming to an end. Dodge City, KS

  7. A black blizzard over Prowers Co., CO 1937

  8. June 4, 1937, at Goodwell, OK

  9. Dust storm approaching Stratford, TX April 18, 1935

  10. Dust storm approaching Stratford, TX April 18, 1935

  11. Approaching dust storm at Powers Co., CO Storm lasted from 4:15 PM to 7:00 PM

  12. A black blizzard over Prower Co., CO 1937

  13. Dust storm at Sheridan Lake, CO

  14. A dust cloud approaching a small town in OK

  15. Farmer Arthur Coble and sons walking in the face of the dust storm. April, 1936 “Fleeing a dust storm”

  16. Dust is too much for this farmer’s son in Cimarron County, OK 1936

  17. Sometimes it was deep.

  18. Garden City, KS at 5:15 PM (note the street lights photo 1) and compare to photo 2. Photo 2 was just 15 min. later after the dust blotted out the sun. Photo 2 Photo 1

  19. Dust storm approaching Elkhart, KS May, 1937

  20. Red Cross volunteers wearing dust masks. Liberal, KS

  21. The Dust Bowl and drought devastated some farm families in the early 1930’s, such as this 32 year old mother of seven. “Migrant Mother” 1936

  22. But Today Things are Different, or Are They? Dallas 2/07 Before After

  23. One More Dallas 2/07 Before After

  24. Things are not so different! • This is just north of Big Springs, TX on the south edge of the Dust Bowl. Feb/07

  25. Areas of Concern for Wind Erosion

  26. Wind Erosion Continues • As recently as the spring of 1996 wind erosion severely damaged ag land throughout the Great Plains. • On Cropland, about 172 million acres are eroded by wind and water at twice the soil loss tolerance rate. • Wind erosion is about 40% of this loss, and can increase markedly in drought years.

  27. Wind Erosion, the Problem • Wind erosion is the dominate problem on about 74 million acres and moderately severe on 5 million acres. • NRI data shows a 0.8 of a ton/ac improvement from 1982 to 1994 mostly from CRP.

  28. Wind Takes the Best • Wind erosion removes the lighter, less dense soil constituents such as OM, clays, and silts. • It has been estimated that it causes annual yield reductions of 339,000 bu of Wheat and 543,000 bu of sorghum on 1.2 million acres of sandy soil in SW KS. Somewhat masked by technology. • It damages seedlings.

  29. Wind Erosion Gets in the Air • Suspension becomes part of the atmospheric dust load. • It can cause health issues as PM-10 and PM 2.5. • NM has a non-attainment over Las Cruces. • It routinely causes Interstate 10 to be closed, hopefully before someone is killed. • Some states use EQIP to reduce sediment load in borrow ditches and on roads.

  30. KS Rainfall 1895-2002 Dry Years and high eroson Dry Years and high erosion

  31. New Mexico Rainfall 1895-2002 Dry Years

  32. Rainfall 1935

  33. Rainfall 1936

  34. Rainfall 1937

  35. Rainfall 1951

  36. Rainfall 1956

  37. Major Things that Effect Wind Erosion • Crop Rotation, high residue crops vs low residue row crops. Alfalfa system erode less. • Tillage practices, Heavy tillage like plows vs No-till or non-inversion tillage like sweeps. • Surface Roughness, Ridging and Clodiness reduce erosion and trap moving soil particles. • Cover Crops, Used for cover when low residue crops are grown. • Amount of Grazing, Eastern NM systems have heavy grazing in them. • Annual Rainfall, dry cropland will blow on dry years, even with good mgt. • Timing of tillage, Land heavy tilled soon after harvest will erode more that delaying tillage closer to seeding time. • Irrigation, wet soil blows less.