New Horizons New Horizons is a spacecraft. Will pass within 10,000km of Pluto and 27,000km of Charon. Speed freak with the record for the fastest-ever launch. A size of a grand piano. It is also looking for unknown moons and ring systems. It’s launched in 19 January 2006. Will encounter Pluto in 14 July 2015. The take off speed is 58,352 km/h.
Voyagers Sibling team of probes launched in 1997. These sightseers have visited the most plants and moons. Both carry a “golden record” with pictures and sounds of earth. Voyager 1 is more than twice the distance that Pluto is from the sun! Voyager 2 has visited all of the giant gas planets. Voyager 1 speed is 99,936 km/h. Time for signals to reach Earth is 4 hours. The voyagers’ systems will blink out in 2020 or later.
The Oort cloud A circular cloud of comets that cover the Kuiper belt and the solar system. It has never been directly observed. It is storing millions of comets. It is named after the discoverer, Jan Oort in 1950. It is 1.6 light years from earth. It shoots one of the famous comet that we are talking about later which is Halley Comet.
Halley’s comet Appears every 75-76 years. Debris left causes 2 meteor showers every year. It is peanut shaped. It’s tail is 100km long. It is named after Edmund Halley who predicted the orbit of the Halley’s Comet. It is 15 km long and 7.5 km wide. It average speed is 70.56 km/s.
Constellation A pattern formed by night stars in the night sky. Different ones can be seen at different times of the year. Its brightest star is almost always called the alpha star. In the past, ancient astronomers look at constellations to entertain themselves. The number of constellations is 88. The largest constellation is Hydra (Snake) and the smallest constellation is the Crux (Southern Cross).
Star Birth Nebula A clouded region of space that is a nursery for new stars. Infrared light exposes young stars. Stars can hang around for 100 million years before bursting into life. These Nebula are the coldest, darkest and most secret placesin the universe.
Open cluster A small gang of competitive young stars, all out for themselves. This brood forms collapsing clumps inside a star birth nebula. These few thousand stars are all formed at the same time.
Brown Dwarf They cannot perform nuclear fusion. There are M,T and L classification for brown dwarfs.
Red Dwarf A small but cooler star than standard Stars. They are the most common type of star in the Milky way. The nearest star to the sun is a red dwarf.
Extrasolar Planet They are planets that do not belong in our solar system. They orbit other stars. The first Extrasolar planet orbiting a normal star is 51 Pegesib.
Supergiant Second Largest type of star In the universe. Larger and hotter than the sun. Betelgeuse is a red supergiant. The biggest supergiant is VV Cephei A.
Supermassive Black Hole The largest type of black holes. Astronomers think that every galaxy has a supermassive black hole Our milky way galaxy has a supermassive black hole. The black hole is Sagittarius A*.
Active Galaxy Galaxies that contain supermassive black holes in the middle of it The supermassive black hole emits a jet containing radiation. Can you find the jet in this picture?(Clue: It is pretty obvious)
Milky Way It is our own galaxy. Our galaxy is called the Milky Way as it looks like a cup of milk spilled in the universe.
Andromeda Galaxy Known as M31(Messier 31) or NGC 224. The biggest galaxy in a group which includes the Milky Way called the Local Group. About 2.5 million light years away from Earth. The distance between the Milky Way and the M31 getting closer to the Milky way.
Colliding Galaxies When a galaxy merge with another galaxy, the two had collided, so it is called colliding galaxies. The colliding galaxies are Arp 273, Cartwheel, NGC 4038 and 4039(Antennae), NGC 6872, Stephan Quintet. Million and billions of years later, Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy will collide into each other.
The Big Bang • Before the start of the universe, there is darkness. When suddenly…… • …a large explosion with atoms and particles occur. This is known as the Big Bang. • The Big Bang is a theory which scientists think is the beginning of the universe. • It’s hot at the start and atoms repel themselves but then it cool down and atom stick together to from galaxies, stars and planets.
Space Time = + A forth dimension object which is a combination of space and time. Scientists think a wormhole may teleport you in great distance like a portal…. ….or maybe even time like a time machine.