Best Practices Day 2. Roseanna Mitsch Angela Cassel. Small Group Activity. Students Age and Grade Students Functioning L evel Behaviors - Describe Staffing (Staff Ratio) Toileting Issues? Parental support Level of inclusion (Academics/Social). What is Pairing?.
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Students Age and Grade
Students Functioning Level
Behaviors - Describe
Staffing (Staff Ratio)
Level of inclusion (Academics/Social)
A conditioned reinforcer is a type of reinforcer that obtains its value by having been paired with other reinforcers.
Learners who have many conditioned reinforcers will learn important skills more easily.
It can take minutes….
It can take hours..
It can take days..
Pairing is an ongoing process
The goal of pairing is for the learner to like to be with the staff and to approach him or her without hesitation.
Example classes with only 2 and/or 3 staff. How it can still take place….
Still following a daily schedule….
How to pair with kids who are included all day…
Pairing with low functioning vs high functioning
Pairing in a regular education classroom.
NO REINFORCEMENT = NO LEARNING
happy, upset, engaged, or disinterested.
Please be back in 15 minutes….
What do you know about CLM?
A multi-component package for addressing the individual learning needs of children who have difficulty participating in typical learning environments
CLM is appropriate for:
Individuals with complicated learning profiles of all ages (autism, PDD, behavioral difficulties, other developmental disabilities)
Individuals who do NOT participate during instructional conditions and/or exhibit challenging behavior problems to avoid or escape instructional conditions
Individuals who do NOT learn from ‘Model-Lead-Test” or other didactic instructional conditions
Individuals who are missing many of the repertoires to be successful at school, home, or in the community
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
Analysis of Verbal Behavior
*Over 30 years of research that looked at effective methods of educating students.
4. Coaching andImplementation guidelines
Show and Tell
Go figure it out!
Read about it
Observe the speaker
Listen to the instruction
Adhere to/act upon the instruction
Problem solve by asking for clarification
Participate in the event
The seven are repertoires that all learners need in order to progress in educational settings and to function in daily life.
The development of and instruction within these seven repertoires is needed to help learners learn new skills.
These repertoires are based upon B.F. Skinner’s (1957) analysis of functional language that provides a framework for developing communication, observing and listening skills, and the pre-academic skills of reading and writing
Semi-Directed: Completes parts of tasks with a teacher near by.
Teacher Directed: Performs sets of responses upon teacher direction. Answers on signal from teacher.
Non-Directed: Selects and uses a variety of items/objects in a non-directed way.
Peer-Directed: Accepts/gives items to peers. Takes Turns.
Please be back in 1 hour…
Enjoy your lunch
Establish the classroom schedules and routines on the first day of school.
Have a schedule ready on the first day
Know what your routines are and start teaching them on the first day. Keep teaching them and reviewing them as needed throughout the year. Keep in mind that after long breaks from school, routines will need to be reviewed.
Develop basic daily class schedule
Establish instructional time increments
Post schedule in room
Sync reward systems for all students (embedded transition time is reward time)
Develop weekly schedules that include therapies and specials
Develop staff schedule that covers all students, times, staff and data collection
Foundation for interacting and getting along with others
Some students need to be taught each skill discretely
Programming for social skills is just as important as programming for academic tasks
Take into consideration when programming that students learn best from peer models
This should be include this in your schedules
Look for opportunities for inclusion as well as reverse inclusion
Social skills can and should be worked on all day as we are all in social situations all day.
Establish routines from the first day of school.
Teach the students what it is they need to do to accomplish the routines.
You will need to work on this daily at first and then re-visit as need.
Once routines are taught and mastered, the day will run more smoothly and the students will have a clear understanding of what is expected of them and when.
Arrival (hanging bag, checking schedule, choosing lunch, etc.)
Lunch and Recess
Leaving the room as a class, walking in the halls
Going to Speech/OT/PT
What to bring to the math area.
Leaving at end of the day (packing book bags, etc.)
Classroom set up reflects instructional conditions (Teacher Directed, Semi Directed, Peer Directed, Non-Directed)
Where will large group work take place?
Where will individual work place?
Where is the reading area?
Where is the math area?
Where is the leisure area?
1. Pair teaching environments with reinforcement and use competing reinforcers
2. Mix and vary instructional demands
3. Reduce student error
4. Intersperse easy and difficult demands
5. Fade in number of demands
6. Pace instruction properly
7. Teach to fluency
8. Generalization of Skills
These teaching procedures are used to increase:
The instructor should teach quickly and keep the time in between the learner’s response and next instruction to less than 2-3 seconds.
Teaching skills correct and quick as opposed to just correct
Expect your learners to have a response time of less than 2-3 seconds. This means they are responding within 2-3 seconds of a instruction.
Come up with some ways to collect and monitor data on the skills your student needs to work on.
The following Applied Behavior Analysis Behavior Protocols are only to be used if the learner does not have a Behavior Intervention Plan.
Count and Mand
Objective: This is a protocol to teach a student to accept being told “no” as a replacement for problem behavior.
It is most often taught to students who exhibit problem behavior when they are told they can’t have something that they want.
Objective: To reduce problem behavior to obtain items and activities by teaching the appropriate mands.
Example: A learner wants something that they can havebut not for engaging in inappropriate behavior - teach acceptable form of communication
Tell learner to stop “behavior” and begin counting showing fingers counting off to 3.
If behavior continues during count, re- start the count
If learner runs off, stop counting and “ignore” learner (still keep an eye on learner to ensure safety).
If you reach 3 with no problem behavior, prompt learner to request desired item / activity with acceptable form of communication.
Deliver item/activity for proper communication
Objective: To replace problem behavior that has been acquired when problem behavior has resulted in the removal of demands to transition to another activity and thereby the student has maintained possession of a toy, activity or item.
Appropriate reinforcement is the key
Approach the Learner (3-5feet) and ask the learner to leave that activity and comply to a new demand and/or transition
Use a “promise reinforcer”. This means that you will place the demand to transition while showing and informing the child of the reinforcer available for transitioning without problem behavior.
If learner complies and does not engage in problem behavior, reinforce with “promise reinforcer” or anotherreinforcer.
If learner engages in problem behavior, do not remove demand or allow access to preferred reinforcer. Remove promise reinforcer and keep the demand on the learner. Use physical guidance to obtain compliance as needed.
Deliver appropriate reinforcers in the activity transition
Tell the Learner “You will have to wait”
Begin counting aloud and show passage of time by using your fingers. Ex: “Wait..1..2..3…”
If the learner stops engaging in inappropriate behavior for an entire interval, deliver reinforcer.
If the learner continues to engage in inappropriate behavior, start your count over. Continue for three counts.
If the learner continues to engage in inappropriate behavior at the third count, the object is no longer available to the learner.
Brainstorm with your group how you would embed any of these strategies within the school day school day for the student you have been working on today.