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Best Practices Day 2. Roseanna Mitsch Angela Cassel. Small Group Activity. Students Age and Grade Students Functioning L evel Behaviors - Describe Staffing (Staff Ratio) Toileting Issues? Parental support Level of inclusion (Academics/Social). What is Pairing?.

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best practices day 2

Best Practices Day 2

Roseanna Mitsch

Angela Cassel

small group activity
Small Group Activity

Students Age and Grade

Students Functioning Level

Behaviors - Describe

Staffing (Staff Ratio)

Toileting Issues?

Parental support

Level of inclusion (Academics/Social)

what is pairing
What is Pairing?
  • “A procedure for establishing teachers, peers, materials and the environment as conditioned reinforcers.

A conditioned reinforcer is a type of reinforcer that obtains its value by having been paired with other reinforcers.

Learners who have many conditioned reinforcers will learn important skills more easily.

how long does it take
How long does it take?

It can take minutes….

It can take hours..

It can take days..

Pairing is an ongoing process

The goal of pairing is for the learner to like to be with the staff and to approach him or her without hesitation.

what can pairing look like
What can Pairing look like?
  • How do you embed it into the day
  • How do you teach and pair at the same time?
    • Ex. Math Center/Lesson on Schedule
  • Instruction should continue while pairing but demands won’t be high.
    • Review of previously mastered skills
    • W0rking on learned concepts in a fun way with A LOT of reinforcement…
suggestions for pairing
Suggestions for Pairing

Example classes with only 2 and/or 3 staff. How it can still take place….

Still following a daily schedule….

How to pair with kids who are included all day…

Pairing with low functioning vs high functioning

Pairing in a regular education classroom.

  • Once staff is paired with the child, the child will willingly approach and seek out the staff.
    • This relationship will increase learning.
    • It is imperative all staff are paired with the children they are assigned.
  • Pairing is an ongoing process that should occur daily.


(Andy Bondy)

why to we do this
Why to we do this?
  • We want out learners to want to be with us.
    • Run towards us….Not away from us
  • We want to be seen as givers not takers.
  • Establishes instructional control
establishing instructional control
Establishing Instructional Control
  • Pairing establishes instructional control, but how do you know when you have instructional control.
    • Student follows various instructions
    • Student asks for motivating items.
    • Able to fade in number of instructional demands
    • Able to fade in difficulty of instructional demands
  • If demands are placed to quickly, you will have an unwilling learner.
steps for pairing
Steps for Pairing
  • Identify the learner’s reinforcers
    • Identify items, people, or activities that are fun or reinforcing for the learner.
    • This can be done by completing: Reinforcer Surveys, Preference Assessments, Observing the Learner….
reinforcer surveys
  • Getting Started:
    • Review home survey, IEP, and ER/RR to see what information is included. This is helpful to include in students present levels!
    • Observe learner in all school environments. See what the learner is interested in.
reinforcer survey
Reinforcer Survey
  • Evaluating Learner’s Response to Environment
    • Look at learner’s behaviors when interacting with different stimuli in the environment
    • Remember: Learners respond differently to a variety of sensory stimuli
reinforcer survey1
Reinforcer Survey
  • Learner’s Response to Environment
    • VISUAL: sight
      • Example: Enjoys changes in lighting, colors; moving vs. still stimuli; enjoys puzzles, drawing; toys moving parts, etc.
    • AUDITORY: sound
      • Example: Enjoys changes in pitch, tone, volume; loud vs. quiet; music and singing; talking toys; tapping patterns, musical instruments, etc.
    • TACTILE: touch
      • Example: Enjoys textures (soft, hard, rough, smooth, wet, dry) in relation to clothing, food, toys, hugs, tickles, sand, water play, etc.
    • KINETIC: movement
      • Example: Enjoys motion vs. sedentary activities such as jumping, bouncing, swinging, spinning, etc.
    • GUSTATORY: taste
      • Example: Enjoys food or drinks: salty, sweet, sour, crunchy, soft, spicy, hot, cold, etc.
    • OLFACTORY: smell
      • Example: Enjoys sniffing candles, putty, perfume, food etc.
reinforcer survey2
Reinforcer Survey
  • Using the Reinforcer Survey
    • Check off items, activities, people, or actions your learner enjoys on survey and indicate the level of interest.
    • Observe the learner’s behavior while interacting

happy, upset, engaged, or disinterested.

    • Ask the student
      • Use Pictures if needed
an additional thought
An Additional Thought….
  • Follow the learners changing interest….
    • What was valuable today may not be valuable tomorrow…
    • Preferred Items/Activities should appear because you made it available. Try and Limit “Free Access” to preferred items.
group activity
Group Activity
  • Practice using a Reinforcer Survey on your chosen student
  • Develop a Pairing Plan for the first week of school
  • Share with the Group:
    • What did you like?
    • What would you change?
    • What was helpful?
    • Do you use one that was not presented today?

Reinforcement exists in each and every one of our lives…

      • Would you go to work if you were not getting paid to be there?
    • Have you ever told yourself…first I’ll do the food shopping then I will go to Starbucks!!!
    • Examples from the Group:
selecting reinforcers
Selecting Reinforcers
  • ALWAYS keep in mind…what serves as a reinforcer for me is different than what serves a reinforcer for you
    • I LOVE_____…I will do anything for ______…would you???
    • How many times have you told a student what they will work for???
    • Yes…I reinforce my students…on Friday afternoon they watch a movie!
      • Is this reinforcement???
conducting a preference assessment
Conducting a Preference Assessment
  • Ask
    • Ask the individual
    • Ask those who know the individual best
  • Observe
    • Look to see what the student gravitates toward…
      • For our more challenging students or lower functioning students…keep an open mind.
  • Do a formal Preference Assessment
    • Paired Choice
    • Multiple Stimulus
reinforcement is more than just rewards
Reinforcement is more than JUST rewards
  • We need to start to think…how can I make my instruction more reinforcing?
    • think about what the students likes: computer, art’s and crafts, food
    • How can I embed my teaching into fun highly motivating activities?
    • How would they respond to painting their spelling words, making their words out of play-doh, making a powerpoint presentation, listening to a book on tape, making an imovie, doing some instruction on the ipad??
    • Offer choices
  • Examples from the group…
time for a break
Time for a Break….

Please be back in 15 minutes….

competent learner model
Competent Learner Model

What do you know about CLM?

competent learner model1
Competent Learner Model

A multi-component package for addressing the individual learning needs of children who have difficulty participating in typical learning environments

who is this appropriate for
Who is this appropriate for???

CLM is appropriate for:

Individuals with complicated learning profiles of all ages (autism, PDD, behavioral difficulties, other developmental disabilities)

Individuals who do NOT participate during instructional conditions and/or exhibit challenging behavior problems to avoid or escape instructional conditions

Individuals who do NOT learn from ‘Model-Lead-Test” or other didactic instructional conditions

Individuals who are missing many of the repertoires to be successful at school, home, or in the community

competent learner model2
Competent Learner Model
  • Goal:
    • To implement effective and sustainable educational programs for children with challenging learning problems
competent learner model3
Competent Learner Model

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Analysis of Verbal Behavior

Direct Instruction

Precision Teaching

*Over 30 years of research that looked at effective methods of educating students.



components of clm
Components of CLM
  • Learner assessments
  • Supplemental curriculum with effective teaching strategies
  • Staff training with coaching and collaborative consultation

4. Coaching andImplementation guidelines


day to day instructional practices
Day to Day Instructional Practices

Show and Tell

Go figure it out!

Read about it


Try harder!

show and tell
Show and Tell
  • Observe the demonstration
  • Listen to what is said
  • Echo/report back
  • Problem solve and ask for clarification
  • Participate throughout the whole event
go figure it out
Go Figure it Out!
  • Problem Solve
    • Ask questions
    • Manipulate materials
  • Observe
    • Identify what others are doing
  • Read
    • The cues of others
  • Participate and persist
read about it
Read About It
  • Read
  • Listen and adhere to the instruction
  • Problem solve and ask for clarification
  • Participate in the activity

Observe the speaker

Listen to the instruction

Adhere to/act upon the instruction

Problem solve by asking for clarification

Participate in the event

try harder
Try Harder!
  • Participate and persist
  • Problem solve
    • Asking appropriate questions
    • Manipulate the materials
for some of our students
For some of our students
  • They are not able to learn new skills through typical instruction
  • Why?
    • Because the skills that are needed to be a competent learner are either weak or do not exist at all
    • Because they do not value the instructor, the materials, the activity, or the end product
    • We may be able to teach a skill or action occasionally but what is we could teach the students how to learn.
the repertoires
The Repertoires
  • Talker
  • Listener
  • Observer
  • Reader
  • Problem Solver
  • Writer
  • Participator
7 repertoires
7 Repertoires

The seven are repertoires that all learners need in order to progress in educational settings and to function in daily life.

The development of and instruction within these seven repertoires is needed to help learners learn new skills.

These repertoires are based upon B.F. Skinner’s (1957) analysis of functional language that provides a framework for developing communication, observing and listening skills, and the pre-academic skills of reading and writing

  • Echoes a modeled response
  • Articulates clear ideas (i.e., factual or inferential statements)
  • Answers questions on topic
  • Follows directions
  • Adheres to advice imparted by a talker.
  • Performs careful and direct observations to produce factual information
  • Matches to sample, sorts, and imitates
  • The learner reads the material fluently
  • Answers questions about the material
  • Performs the actions as directed by the material.
problem solver
Problem Solver
  • When faced with a problem:
    • behave to maximize the likelihood to generate a solution.
  • Produces written materials to convey clear ideas (i.e., factual or inferential).
  • Participates consistently in a variety of instructional conditions:
    • Teacher-directed (t-d)
    • Semi-directed (s-d)
    • Peer-directed (p-d)
    • Non-directed (n-d)
  • Continues to work hard even when exposed to novel and/or difficult contingencies
a closer look at participator
A Closer Look at Participator

Semi-Directed: Completes parts of tasks with a teacher near by.

Teacher Directed: Performs sets of responses upon teacher direction. Answers on signal from teacher.

Non-Directed: Selects and uses a variety of items/objects in a non-directed way.

Peer-Directed: Accepts/gives items to peers. Takes Turns.

  • Think about the activities that you completed before you came to work today.
    • Example: Got up, Made Coffee, Ate Breakfast, etc.
  • Identify the different repertoires?
  • Share with your group
group work
Group Work
  • In your small group:
    • Talk about the type of learner your student is.
      • What types of lessons and activities should be planned?
      • What types of interactions should the staff use with the learner
      • What should inclusion look like?
time for lunch
Time for Lunch….

Please be back in 1 hour…

Enjoy your lunch 

getting ready for the school year
Getting Ready for the School Year

Establish the classroom schedules and routines on the first day of school.

Have a schedule ready on the first day

Know what your routines are and start teaching them on the first day. Keep teaching them and reviewing them as needed throughout the year. Keep in mind that after long breaks from school, routines will need to be reviewed.

setting up a schedule
Setting Up A Schedule

Develop basic daily class schedule

Establish instructional time increments

Post schedule in room

Sync reward systems for all students (embedded transition time is reward time)

Develop weekly schedules that include therapies and specials

Develop staff schedule that covers all students, times, staff and data collection

student schedules
Student Schedules
  • Each student should have a schedule to follow.
  • Make sure that they have access to the schedule at all times.
    • Don’t hide it
  • Different types of schedules:
    • Picture Schedule
    • Check List
    • Written Schedule
    • Examples from the group:
managing students social skills development
Managing Students – Social Skills Development

Foundation for interacting and getting along with others

Some students need to be taught each skill discretely

Programming for social skills is just as important as programming for academic tasks

Take into consideration when programming that students learn best from peer models

This should be include this in your schedules

managing students social skills development1
Managing Students – Social Skills Development

Look for opportunities for inclusion as well as reverse inclusion

Social skills can and should be worked on all day as we are all in social situations all day.

creating a backup schedule
Creating a Backup Schedule
  • Staff Absence/No Sub
    • Teacher Out – No Sub
    • Teacher and Staff Out – No Sub
  • Changes to Speech, OT or PT Schedule
  • Building Schedule Change – Ex: PSSA Testing
staff schedules
Staff Schedules
  • Each Staff Member should have a schedule to follow.
  • Everyone should know what they are to be doing when.
    • Also where the instruction is to take place
    • Where the materials are located
  • Materials should be prepped and ready for when the scheduled activity is going to take place.
  • Data Collection – What data is to be collected when and by who?

Establish routines from the first day of school.

Teach the students what it is they need to do to accomplish the routines.

You will need to work on this daily at first and then re-visit as need.

Once routines are taught and mastered, the day will run more smoothly and the students will have a clear understanding of what is expected of them and when.

example routines
Example Routines…

Arrival (hanging bag, checking schedule, choosing lunch, etc.)

Lunch and Recess

Leaving the room as a class, walking in the halls

Going to Speech/OT/PT

What to bring to the math area.

Leaving at end of the day (packing book bags, etc.)

set up learning environment
Set up Learning Environment

Classroom set up reflects instructional conditions (Teacher Directed, Semi Directed, Peer Directed, Non-Directed)

Where will large group work take place?

Where will individual work place?

Where is the reading area?

Where is the math area?

Where is the leisure area?

managing the physical environment
Managing the Physical Environment
  • Setting up the Physical Classroom
    • Inviting and conducive to learning
    • Neat and organized so staff can locate materials
    • Free of clutter
    • Make sure staff can easily see students in various locations of room
managing the physical environment1
Managing the Physical Environment
  • Seating for learners
    • Chair and table height – feet on floor – consult OT
    • Keep in mind learner behaviors
      • EX. “eloper” – not a good idea to put work area by a door
    • Minimize classroom distraction
      • Use dividers and/or partitions within the classroom, if necessary
managing the physical environment2
Managing the Physical Environment
  • Classroom Posts
    • Being prepared for teaching not in classroom; class should be able to run without the teacher being present
    • Post student and student schedules – being aware of where to be at any given time
    • Secure location for confidential staff and student information
      • Staff should know where these materials are placed for emergency situation
managing the physical environment3
Managing the Physical Environment
  • Arrangement of Instructional Materials
    • Ex. Curriculums, Supplemental Materials, etc.
  • Making sure all staff know where items are located and where to get needed times.
classroom map activity
Classroom Map Activity
  • Think about your classroom.
  • Draw it out
    • Does anything need to be changed?
    • Does anything need to be moved?
    • Where will instruction be most effective?
time management
Time Management
  • There are 6.5 available hours in the school day.
  • Every minute is valuable!!!
  • Goal is to maximize the amount of time a learner is focused on learning
  • The amount of academic time is significantly reduced after thinking about all the events that take place in a given day
    • Lunch, recess, arrival, toileting
effective teaching procedures
Effective Teaching Procedures

1. Pair teaching environments with reinforcement and use competing reinforcers

2. Mix and vary instructional demands

3. Reduce student error

4. Intersperse easy and difficult demands

5. Fade in number of demands

6. Pace instruction properly

7. Teach to fluency

8. Generalization of Skills

effective teaching procedures1
Effective Teaching Procedures

These teaching procedures are used to increase:

  • student compliance
  • student rate of acquisition
  • student response time and accuracy
  • overall number of skills in the student’s repertoire
errorless teaching
Errorless Teaching
  • One of the most common complaints about errorless learning (EL) is that it "makes children prompt dependent."
  • This can be true if the teacher doesn't properly fade the prompts.
  • Transfer trials, in which prompts are immediately faded to allow for independent responses, are critical to success with EL.
  • Rather than following a set prompt level to criterion, it is preferable to use most-to-least prompting and adjust your prompting moment-to-moment according to the child's responses.
  • A good rule of thumb to follow is that for every prompted trial you run, immediately run an unprompted, or transfer, trial. This procedure looks like this:
    • Teacher: "What is it? Cookie. (echoic prompt)"Child: "Cookie."Teacher: "Right. What is it? (no echoic prompt)"Child: "Cookie." (Teacher immediately reinforces.)

fast paced instruction
Fast Paced Instruction
  • Instruction which is delivered in a fast pace manner can reduce problem behavior and student errors.
  • Fast Paced Delivery of Instruction

The instructor should teach quickly and keep the time in between the learner’s response and next instruction to less than 2-3 seconds.

teaching to fluency
Teaching to Fluency

Teaching skills correct and quick as opposed to just correct

Expect your learners to have a response time of less than 2-3 seconds. This means they are responding within 2-3 seconds of a instruction.

small group activity1
Small Group Activity
  • Think about the students you work with and discuss with your group how you will utilize the Effective Teaching Procedures.
  • We should be making data based decisions
  • Data should be reviewed before making decisions.
    • Example: Curriculum Changes; Modifications
  • Data should be collected and Graphed on ALL IEP goals and objectives.
    • These should be identified at the start of the year and monitored daily/weekly/monthly based on IEP.
    • Data should be monitored prior to progress reporting. Interventions can be in place to ensure student in making progress towards IEP Goals/Objectives.
small group activity2
Small Group Activity

Come up with some ways to collect and monitor data on the skills your student needs to work on.

behavior protocols
Behavior Protocols

The following Applied Behavior Analysis Behavior Protocols are only to be used if the learner does not have a Behavior Intervention Plan.

behavioral interventions1
Behavioral Interventions

Accepting No

Count and Mand

Interruption Transition


accepting no
Accepting No

Objective: This is a protocol to teach a student to accept being told “no” as a replacement for problem behavior.

It is most often taught to students who exhibit problem behavior when they are told they can’t have something that they want.

when to use the accepting no protocol
When to use the Accepting No Protocol….
  • A Learner wants something that they can not have…
    • Example:
      • Food Allergy
      • Item is broken/Needs Batteries
      • Other Ideas from the group???
steps to the running accepting no protocol
Steps to The Running Accepting No Protocol
  • When the learner mands for the activity/item, tell him “no.” As you say no, bring up a reinforcer and offer another activity by saying “but you can have or do this ______ instead.”
      • Ex. ?You can’t have _____ but you can have ______ or ______.”
  • If the Learner does not engage in problem behavior, deliver reinforcer.
  • If the learner does engage in problem behavior, put the reinforcer away and withdraw the offer.
  • Do not attend to problem behavior and leave the area if the learner will not engage in unsafe behaviors or continue with previous demand/task situations.
the count and mand protocol
The Count and Mand Protocol

Objective: To reduce problem behavior to obtain items and activities by teaching the appropriate mands.

Example: A learner wants something that they can havebut not for engaging in inappropriate behavior - teach acceptable form of communication

when to use the count and mand protocol
When to use the Count and Mand Protocol….
  • If the learner has Poor language skills
    • Manifested by tantrum, crying, hitting, escape
    • Extinguish current behavior & replace with a more appropriate behavior (vocal, sign, gesture, picture)
  • The learner is using behaviors to gain access to a desired item.
    • Example: Having a tantrum to get access to the Thomas Train
steps to running the count and mand protocol
Steps to Running the Count and Mand Protocol

Tell learner to stop “behavior” and begin counting showing fingers counting off to 3.

If behavior continues during count, re- start the count

If learner runs off, stop counting and “ignore” learner (still keep an eye on learner to ensure safety).

If you reach 3 with no problem behavior, prompt learner to request desired item / activity with acceptable form of communication.

Deliver item/activity for proper communication

the interruption transition protocol
The Interruption Transition Protocol

Objective: To replace problem behavior that has been acquired when problem behavior has resulted in the removal of demands to transition to another activity and thereby the student has maintained possession of a toy, activity or item.

when to use the interruption transition protocol
When to use the Interruption Transition Protocol
  • When a learner has trouble with transitions.
    • Examples:
      • Preferred to preferred
      • Preferred to less preferred
      • Preferred to non-preferred
      • Non-preferred to preferred

Appropriate reinforcement is the key

steps to running the interruption transition protocol
Steps to Running the Interruption Transition Protocol..

Approach the Learner (3-5feet) and ask the learner to leave that activity and comply to a new demand and/or transition

Use a “promise reinforcer”. This means that you will place the demand to transition while showing and informing the child of the reinforcer available for transitioning without problem behavior.

If learner complies and does not engage in problem behavior, reinforce with “promise reinforcer” or anotherreinforcer.

If learner engages in problem behavior, do not remove demand or allow access to preferred reinforcer. Remove promise reinforcer and keep the demand on the learner. Use physical guidance to obtain compliance as needed.

Deliver appropriate reinforcers in the activity transition

the wait protocol
The Wait Protocol
  • Objective: Teach a learner to wait for a desired item and/or restrict assess until appropriate behavior is displayed.
when to use the wait protocol
When to Use the Wait Protocol
  • This Protocol is not typically used with “early learners.” It is used more with an intermediate/advanced learner who has a language repertoire.
  • Passage of time increases over time.
    • Ex. Student doesn’t like when teacher talks to another adult. Student runs over pulling on staffs leg, yelling, etc. Say to student “wait, 1,2) over time slowly increase the amount of time the learner is required to wait.
steps to running the wait protocol
Steps to Running the Wait Protocol

Tell the Learner “You will have to wait”

Begin counting aloud and show passage of time by using your fingers. Ex: “Wait..1..2..3…”

If the learner stops engaging in inappropriate behavior for an entire interval, deliver reinforcer.

If the learner continues to engage in inappropriate behavior, start your count over. Continue for three counts.

If the learner continues to engage in inappropriate behavior at the third count, the object is no longer available to the learner.

additional point
Additional Point
  • Use these strategies when appropriate as they come up during the day.
    • Example:
      • Ending a favorite activity
      • Having to stop using the computer
      • Not being able to access something
small group activity3
Small Group Activity

Brainstorm with your group how you would embed any of these strategies within the school day school day for the student you have been working on today.