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Chapter 10: Challenges for the future. The future. “Intelligence-led policing is crime fighting that is guided by effective intelligence gathering and analysis—and it has the potential to be the most important law enforcement innovation of the twenty-first century”

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the future
The future
  • “Intelligence-led policing is crime fighting that is guided by effective intelligence gathering and analysis—and it has the potential to be the most important law enforcement innovation of the twenty-first century”

Kelling, G.L. and Bratton, W.J. (2006) 'Policing terrorism', Civic Bulletin, 43, p. 6.

public support for proactivity
Public support for proactivity
  • ACPO market research report found that
    • Young people and working adults lower on the socio-economic spectrum favored proactive, targeted, solution-oriented policing.
    • Midlife adults in the middle to higher socio-economic groups, older men, and ethnic groups naturally identified with visible patrolling; however, they could be readily convinced through logical argument that proactive and targeted activities are the most effective and beneficial.
    • It was only older women and the retired that retained a connection with visible patrolling as a symbol of reassurance, relating visible patrolling to perceptions of safety.

Bradley, R. (1998). Public expectations and perceptions of policing. Police Research Group: Police Research Series, Paper 96.

issues for management
Issues for management
  • How do we know that informants are telling the truth?
  • How do we place covert information into a wider context of criminality, especially when we may not have confidential sources in other areas?
  • How do we manage the wider strategic responsibilities and avoid degenerating into an informant-led policing model?
5 5 5 information intelligence reporting system
5×5×5 Information/Intelligence Reporting System
  • Source evaluation
    • Always reliable
    • Mostly reliable
    • Sometimes reliable
    • Unreliable
    • Untested source
  • Information evaluation
    • Known to be true without reservation
    • Known personally to the source but not to the person reporting
    • Known personally to the source but not corroborated
    • Cannot be judged
    • Suspected to be false
5 5 5 information intelligence reporting system1
5×5×5 Information/Intelligence Reporting System
  • Handling codes
    • Permits dissemination within the police service and to other law enforcement agencies as specified (default code)
    • Permits dissemination to non-prosecuting parties
    • Permits dissemination to foreign law enforcement agencies
    • Permits dissemination within originating force/agency only: specify reasons and internal recipient(s). Review period must be set.
    • Permits dissemination but receiving agency to observe conditions as specified
principle of proportionality
Principle of proportionality
  • Sir John Stevens noted that the likely target from a crime intelligence assessment of the highest risk for a local police department…
  • ‘will not be the head of an organized crime syndicate. It is more likely that they will be a prolific 15-year-old thief’

Stevens, J. (2001, 3-7 December 2001). Intelligence-led policing. Paper presented at the 2nd World Investigation of Crime Conference, Durban, South Africa.

combating surveillance creep
Combating ‘surveillance creep’
  • Gary Marx identified ‘surveillance creep’, an increasing acceptance of intrusion in the name of crime control
  • The principle of proportionality is therefore a balance of the apposite tactics applied to the appropriate offenders and should be a tenet of intelligence-led policing
data protection
Data protection
  • Title 28 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 23
    • The purpose of 28CFR23 is to ensure that criminal intelligence systems are operated and maintained so that individual privacy and rights are not violated unless in accordance with the law.
  • UK Data Protection Act 1998. Information must…
    • be fairly and lawfully processed
    • be processed for limited purposes and not in any manner incompatible with those purposes
    • be adequate, relevant and not excessive
    • be accurate and where necessary, up to date
    • not be kept for longer than is necessary
    • be processed in accordance with individual rights
    • be stored securely
the widening security agenda
The widening security agenda
  • UK HMIC analysis points to a future policing environment characterized by:
    • widespread enterprising organized criminality, proliferating inter­national terrorism and domestic extremism
    • a premium on intelligence, expertise and smart use of capacity
    • an increasingly risk concerned public and intrusive media

HMIC. (2005). Closing the gap. London: Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary.

strategic harm model
Strategic harm model
  • Strategic harm models are not the same as models to reduce fear of crime
    • Reassurance policing
    • Media scaremongering
  • Media-led policing?
    • Mike Maguire and Tim John described reassurance policing as having a ‘populist’ or ‘consumerist’ focus
national security and ilp
National security and ILP
  • Intelligence-led policing has become a policing paradigm at the same time that national security issues have expanded to become domestic priorities. Terrorism has been linked to
    • Narcotics
    • Organized crime
    • Transnational crime
information sharing environment
Information Sharing Environment
  • Work to better coordinate national security information across the US is undertaken by the Program Manager for the Information Sharing Environment (in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence) and the Information Sharing Council
information sharing council
Information Sharing Council
  • Program Manager for the Information Sharing Environment (Chair)
  • Central Intelligence Agency
  • Department of Commerce
  • Department of Defense (Joint Chiefs of Staff)
  • Department of Defense (Office of the Secretary of Defense)
  • Department of Energy
  • Department of Health and Human Services
  • Department of State

Department of Homeland Security

Department of the Interior

Department of Justice

Department of Transportation

Department of the Treasury

Director of National Intelligence

Federal Bureau of Investigation

National Counterterrorism Center

Office of Management of Budget

lack of executive training
Lack of executive training
  • Recognized as a national way forward, ILP is an all-crimes approach to enforcement that will revolutionize law enforcement. ILP richly integrates existing strategies and technologies into a coherent ‘game-plan’ approach in allocating resources efficiently. Currently, without a national strategy, or a place where police executives can learn how to implement ILP, it is sitting on the shelf unused.

(Bratton 2007: 7–8)

the future1
The future?
  • Both police executives and analysts will have to demonstrate leadership, ownership and understanding of the tenets of intelligence-led policing for it to succeed

Page 237

10 yardsticks for intelligence led policing
10 yardsticks for intelligence-led policing
  • Supportive and informed command structure
  • Intelligence-led policing is the heart of an organization-wide approach
  • Integrated crime and criminal analysis
  • Focus on prolific and serious offenders
  • Analytical and executive training available
  • Both strategic and tactical tasking meetings take place
  • Much routine investigation is screened out
  • Data are sufficiently complete, reliable and available to support quality products that influence decision-making
  • Management structures exist to action intelligence products
  • Appropriate use of prevention, disruption and enforcement